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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 14 0 Browse Search
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the quality. Among many of the Asiatic nations the bricks are of excellent quality. Those of China are faced with porcelain, and in Nepaul they are ornamented by the encaustic process and in relief. The conquerors of Peru found the art of brickmaking in a flourishing condition in the Empire of the Incas, and both there and among the more northerly countries of Yucatan and Mexico, we learn from the Spaniards, and from Humboldt, and also from our own historians and travelers, Prescott, Stephens, and Squier, that the architectural remains of former races are still extant in brick as well as in porphyry and granite. Bricks were made in England by the Romans A. D. 44. Made under the direction of Alfred the Great, A. D. 886. The manufacture flourished remarkably under Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. The size was regulated by Charles I., 1625. The operations of brickmaking may be said to consist in — Preparing the brick-earth.Drying. Tempering.Burning. Molding. The qualit
heads or blades fastened in the grooved edge of a stock, forming a jagged knife or saw. This has been found among the sepulchral mounds of the Iroquois, and was also among the weapons of the people met by Herrera, who says: The Indians had swords made of wood, having a gutter in the forepart, in which were sharp-edged flints strongly fixed with a sort of bitumen and thread. Among the Mexicans this toothed blade was armed with obsidian, and the Spaniards found it a very destructive weapon. Stephens found the same weapon represented in sculpture in the ruins of Central America and Yucatan. In process of time copper, then bronze, and then iron and steel, were introduced. For analyses of the ancient bronzes, see alloys. In the Egyptian mode of embalming dead bodies, and in practicing the rite of circumcision, a knife of flint, obsidian, or other sharp stone, was used. We read of it in Exodus where Zipporah took a sharp stone and used it for the latter purpose. Herodotus and Diod
g. a′, Stephenson's chair and rail. b′, Adams's rail. c′, Button's rail, with steel top. d′, Brooks's steel-capped rail. e′, Lewis's rail. f′, Hanmer and Grim's steel-topped rail. g′, Hagan's rail h′, Chamber's rail, on elastic webs. i′, Robinson's double rail. j′, Pierce's rail. k′, Peckham's rail. l′, Perkins's rail. m′, Shephard's steel-top rail. n′, Day and Mercer's rail. o′, Dwight's rail. p′, Zahn's rail. q′, Johnston's rail. r′, Stephens and Jenkins's rail. s′, Sanborn's tubular rail. t′, Sanborn's rail. u′, Angle's L-rail on continuous sleeper. v′, Dean and Coleman's street-car rail. w′, rail and sleeper, for the East Indies. The sleeper is bent from a plate of wroughtiron to resist the attacks of insects which destroy wooden sleepers. Parkin's vitrified sleeper, patented in England in 1835, consists of hard sleepers of molded and baked blocks laid in continuity, to
valve-box; c, an air-chamber. See also vacuum steam-pump. Barr's elliptic steam-trap. Wilson's steam-trap. Steam-way. A passage leading from the steamport of a valve to the cylinder. Steam-valve. Steam-wheel. The rotary steam-engine (which see). Steam-whis′tle. A sounding device connected with the boiler of a steamengine, either stationary, locomotive, or marine, for the purpose of announcing the hours of work, signaling, etc. It was invented about 1826 by Adrian Stephens, chief mechanic at Plymouth Works, England, and afterward of Merthyr Tydvil, Wales, and was designed to render clearly audible the escape of steam from the safety-valve. Steam-pressure water-elevator. Fig. 5738 illustrates the whistle of a locomotive-engine. The foot is bolted on to the fire-box, has an opening for the admission of steam, and is provided with a cock, by turning which steam is permitted to rush into the hollow piece, which is provided with holes around its lowe
d piece, which, as the lever is swung round, is forced by a spring to engage the sliding-bar b; a further movement of the lever brings its end in contact with a cam projection of the toggle, closing the jaw a upon the object held by the vise. Stephens swivel-vise. D, pipe attachment. E, flat table-clamp for jewelers. F, taper attachment for irregular work. G, jewelers' swivel table-clamp. H, coach-makers', wood-workers', and harness-makers' attachment. Stephens vise and attStephens vise and attachments. In the parallel vise (Fig 6987), the lower end of the movable jaw slides along a guide, and is moved by a screw and handwheel as its upper part is opened and closed by the screw which passes through the fixed jaw Fig. 6988 is a portable wrought-iron table-vise The base and table are of cast and the legs of wrought iron Fig. 6989 is a handy form of vise for pattern-makers' and sawfilers' use. The jaws are closed by a lever cam and opened by a spring. 2. (Carpentry.) A spi
e vicinity of Poitiers. An ivory whistle a foot long has been found in a British barrow. It is engraved in Grose. The railway-signal code of the United States is,— 1 whistle, down brakes. 2 whistles, off brakes. 3 whistles, back up. Continued whistles, danger. Rapid short whistles, cattlealarm. A sweeping parting of the hands on the level of the eye, go ahead Downward motion of the hands with extended arm, stop. 2. The steam-whistle was invented in 1826 by Adrian Stephens, Plymouth, England. It is attached to a pipe connected with the boiler. On turning a cock the steam enters the lower part of the case, and, striking against a thinedged circular deflecting plate, is directed through an annular opening against the beveled rim of a hemispherical or elongated brass cup, and passes out between the upper and lower cups. Whistles. A (Fig. 7206) is Johnston's selfact-ing alarm-whistle. The rod a is adjustable in the tubular stem b of the ball, to s