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Polybius, Histories 224 0 Browse Search
C. Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Civil War (ed. William Duncan) 62 0 Browse Search
Cornelius Tacitus, The History (ed. Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brodribb) 20 0 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Orations, for Quintius, Sextus Roscius, Quintus Roscius, against Quintus Caecilius, and against Verres (ed. C. D. Yonge) 18 0 Browse Search
Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation 16 0 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Orations, The fourteen orations against Marcus Antonius (Philippics) (ed. C. D. Yonge) 16 0 Browse Search
E. T. Merrill, Commentary on Catullus (ed. E. T. Merrill) 14 0 Browse Search
C. Julius Caesar, Gallic War 12 0 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 12 0 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Orations, Three orations on the Agrarian law, the four against Catiline, the orations for Rabirius, Murena, Sylla, Archias, Flaccus, Scaurus, etc. (ed. C. D. Yonge) 10 0 Browse Search
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Polybius, Histories, book 1, The Mamertines and Rome (search)
the extreme penalties of the law, for having broken faith with the people of Rhegium: and now so soon afterwards to assist the Mamertines, who had done precisely the same to Messene as well as Rhegium, involved a breach of equity very hard to justify. The motives of the Romans in acceding to this prayer,—jealousy of the growing power of Carthage. But while fully alive to these points, they yet saw that Carthaginian aggrandisement was not confined to Libya, but had embraced many districts in Iberia as well; and that Carthage was, besides, mistress of all the islands in the Sardinian and Tyrrhenian seas: they were beginning, therefore, to be exceedingly anxious lest, if the Carthaginians became masters of Sicily also, they should find them very dangerous and formidable neighbours, surrounding them as they would on every side, and occupying a position which commanded all the coasts of Italy. Now it was clear that, if the Mamertines did not obtain the assistance they asked for, the Cartha
Polybius, Histories, book 1, The First Punic War; Plan of the First Two Books (search)
Two Books It is time to have done with these explanations, and Subjects of the two first books of the Histories. 1. War in Sicily or first Punic war, B. C. 264-241. 2. The Mercenary or "inexpiable" war, B. C. 240-237. 3. Carthaginian movements in Spain, B. C. 241-218. 4. Illyrian war, B.C. 229-228. 5. Gallic war, B. C. 225-221. 6. Cleomenic war, B. C. 227-221. to come to my subject, after a brief and summary statement of the events of which my introductory books are to treat. Of these the first in order of time are those which befell the Romans and Carthaginians in their war for the possession of Sicily. Next comes the Libyan or Mercenary war; immediately following on which are the Carthaginian achievements in Spain, first under Hamilcar, and then under Hasdrubal. In the course of these events, again, occurred the first expedition of the Romans into Illyria and the Greek side of Europe; and, besides that, their struggles within Italy with the Celts. In Greece at the same time the war
Polybius, Histories, book 2, Recapitulation of Book 1 (search)
original plan. As soon as they had brought the Libyan war to a conclusionB. C. 238. Hamilcar and his son Hannibal sent to Spain. the Carthaginian government collected an army and despatched it under the command of Hamilcar to Iberia. This general toIberia. This general took over the command of the troops, and with his son Hannibal, then nine years old, crossing by the Pillars of Hercules, set about recovering the Carthaginian possessions in Iberia. B. C. 238-229. He spent nine years in Iberia, and after reducing manyIberia. B. C. 238-229. He spent nine years in Iberia, and after reducing many Iberian tribes by war or diplomacy to obedience to Carthage he died in a manner worthy of his great achievements; for he lost his life in a battle against the most warlike and powerful tribes, in which he showed a conspicuous and even reckless perIberia, and after reducing many Iberian tribes by war or diplomacy to obedience to Carthage he died in a manner worthy of his great achievements; for he lost his life in a battle against the most warlike and powerful tribes, in which he showed a conspicuous and even reckless personal gallantry. The Carthaginians appointed his son-in-law Hasdrubal to succeed him, who was at the time in command of the fleet.
Polybius, Histories, book 2, Jealousy At Rome of Hasdrubal In Spain (search)
Jealousy At Rome of Hasdrubal In Spain We must now return to Hasdrubal in Iberia. He had Hasdrubal in Spain. The founding of New Carthage, B. C. 228. during this perSpain. The founding of New Carthage, B. C. 228. during this period been conducting his command with ability and success, and had not only given in general a great impulse to the Carthaginian interests there, but in particular hation of which was exceedingly convenient for operations in Libya as well as in Iberia. Hasdrubal in Spain. The founding of New Carthage, B. C. 228. I shall take a moSpain. The founding of New Carthage, B. C. 228. I shall take a more suitable opportunity of speaking of the site of this town, and pointing out the advantages offered by it to both countries: I must at present speak of the impressdrubal's policy at Rome. Seeing him strengthening the Carthaginian influence in Spain, and rendering it continually more formidable, the Romans were anxious to interaty with him by which the Carthaginians, without saying anything of the rest of Iberia, engaged not to cross the Iber in arms, they pushed on the war with the Celts i
Polybius, Histories, book 2, Several Gallic Tribes Join Forces (search)
rces to the frontier, as though the enemy were already in their territory, before the Gauls had stirred from their own lands. It was this movement of the Gauls that, more than anything else, helped the Carthaginians to consolidate their power in Iberia. For the Romans, as I have said, looked upon the Celtic question as the more pressing one of the two, as being so near home; and were forced to wink at what was going on in Iberia, in their anxiety to settle it satisfactorily first. Having, theresaid, looked upon the Celtic question as the more pressing one of the two, as being so near home; and were forced to wink at what was going on in Iberia, in their anxiety to settle it satisfactorily first. Having, therefore, put their relations with the Carthaginians on a safe footing by the treaty with Hasdrubal, which I spoke of a short time back,Ch. 13. they gave an undivided attention to the Celtic war, convinced that their interest demanded that a decisive battle should be fought with them.
Polybius, Histories, book 2, Hasdrubal Dies and Hannibal Succeeds Him (search)
Hannibal Succeeds Him Our narrative now returns to Hasdrubal, whom we left Death of Hasdrubal in Spain, B. C. 221. See chap. 13. in command of the Carthaginian forces in Iberia. After eight years comIberia. After eight years command in that country, he was assassinated in his own house at night by a certain Celt in revenge for some private wrong. Before his death he had done much to strengthen the Carthaginian power in IberiIberia, not so much by military achievements, as by the friendly relations which he maintained with the native princes. Now that he was dead, the Carthaginians invested Hannibal with the command in Iberia,Iberia, in spite of his youth, because of the ability in the conduct of affairs, and the daring spirit which he had displayed.Succession of Hannibal to the command in Spain. His hostility to Rome. He had no Spain. His hostility to Rome. He had no sooner assumed the command, than he nourished a fixed resolve to make war on Rome; nor was it long before he carried out this resolution. From that time forth there were constant suspicious and cause
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Plan: Events in Greece (search)
Plan: Events in Greece Next, after a summary recapitulation of the proceedings of 6. War with Philip, B. C. 201-197. the Carthaginians and Romans in Iberia, Libya, and Sicily, I shall, following the changes of events, shift the scene of my story entirely to Greece. Here I shall first describe the naval battles of Attalus and the Rhodians against Philip; and the war between Philip and Rome, the persons engaged, its circumstances, and result. Next to this I shall have to record the wrath of the Aetolians,7. Asiatic war, B. C. 192-191. in consequence of which they invited the aid of Antiochus, and thereby gave rise to what is called the Asiatic war against Rome and the Achaean league. Having stated the causes of this war, and described the crossing of Antiochus into Europe, I shall have to show first in what manner he was driven from Greece; secondly, how, being defeated in the war, he was forced to cede all his territory west of Taurus; and thirdly, how the Romans, after crushing the i
Polybius, Histories, book 3, The Credibility of Fabius Pictor (search)
he cause of the Hannibalian war, besides the injury inflicted upon Saguntum, was the encroaching and ambitious spirit of Hasdrubal. "Having secured great power in Iberia, he returned to Libya with the design of destroying the constitution and reducing Carthage to a despotism. But the leading statesmen, getting timely warning of his intention, banded themselves together and successfully opposed him. Suspecting this Hasdrubal retired from Libya, and thenceforth governed Iberia entirely at his own will without taking any account whatever of the Carthaginian Senate. This policy had had in Hannibal from his earliest youth a zealous supporter and imitator; and when he succeeded to the command in Iberia he continued it: and accordingly, even in the case of this war with Rome, was acting on his own authority and contrary to the wish of the Carthaginians; for none of the men of note in Carthage approved of his attack upon Saguntum." This is the statement of Fabius, who goes on to say, that
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Second Cause of the War (search)
e subsequent war. For Hamilcar, having this public grievance in addition to his private feelings of anger, as soon as he had secured his country's safety by reducing the rebellious mercenaries, set at once about securing the Carthaginian power in Iberia with the intention of using it as a base of operations against Rome. Third cause. So that I record as a third cause of the war the Carthaginian success in Iberia: for it was the confidence inspired by their forces there which encouraged them to eh the intention of using it as a base of operations against Rome. Third cause. So that I record as a third cause of the war the Carthaginian success in Iberia: for it was the confidence inspired by their forces there which encouraged them to embark upon it. It would be easy to adduce other facts to show that Hamilcar, though he had been dead ten years at its commencement, largely contributed to bring about the second Punic war, but what I am about to say will be sufficient to establish the fact.
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Hannibal Succeeds to Command in Spain (search)
Hannibal Succeeds to Command in Spain The Carthaginians were highly incensed by their loss of Sicily, but their resentment was heightened still more, as I have said, by the transaction as to Sardinia, and by the addition recently made to their tribute. Accordingly, when the greater part of Iberia had fallen into their power, they Iberia had fallen into their power, they were on the alert to seize any opportunity that presented itself of retaliating upon Rome. At the death of Hasdrubal, to whom they had committed the command in Iberia after the death of Hamilcar, they waited at first to ascertain the feelings of the army; but when news came from thence that the troops had elected Hannibal as commIberia after the death of Hamilcar, they waited at first to ascertain the feelings of the army; but when news came from thence that the troops had elected Hannibal as commander in-chief, a popular assembly was at once held, and the choice of the army confirmed by a unanimous vote. Death of Hamilcar, B. C. 229. As soon as he had taken over the command, Hannibal set out to subdue the tribe of the Olcades; and, having arrived before their most formidable city Althaea, he pitched his camp under its wal
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