rine, a sort of drum.
The guitar appears in the sculptures of ancient Egypt and Nimrond, and is much used in modern Oriental countries.
In the kermanjeh, or Syrian fiddle, the bridgepiece is supported upon the parchment cover of the body.
2. (Nautical.) The brass frame in which a screwpropeller is hung for hoisting.
(1000 B. C.) mentions ox-hide boots and woolen socks as part of the winter equipment of a plowman, but recommends that the plowman go naked in summer.
The modern Syrian boots are of leather, and have an extra thickness sewed on below to answer for a sole; but they do not appear to have a flat, strong sole like our own, and we shol as used in Syria, India, Egypt, etc., but made in modern style by the Giours.
The buckets are made of galvanized iron, and an ass walking 1 1/2 miles an hour — Syrian gait — will raise 3,120 gallons per hour from a depth of 20 feet.
In one form of waterelevator the buckets are small, and constitute links in a chain; the more
ve is grown in Spain in greater perfection than in Italy, owing to some manorial rights or a system of farming the taxes, all the olives of a district are brought to one place to be ground and pressed; and as each heap has to wait its turn, the olives in many of the heaps become black and rancid.
A friend of the missionary W. M. Thompson, who farmed the district of el Mughar, near the lake of Tiberias, states that a black color does not hurt the olives as they lie in the heap.
The modern Syrian plan embraces two modes of grinding the fruit and expressing the oil : —
1. The m aserah, which is worked by hand and used for grinding the early fruit before the streams are raised by the winter rains which start the watermills.
In the m aserah the fruit is ground by a revolving stone in a stone basin, much as in the ancient Phoenician method just described.
It is pressed in a beam or screw press, the mass being packed into straw baskets, which are piled one above another in the press.
memorials of conquerors of various dynasties.
c, Fig. 3611, is a portion of an inscription discovered at Hamath in Northern Syria.
The entering in of Hamath is celebrated in the itineraries of these surging nations.
No theory of interpretation he next figure, and a comparison of others for which we have no room here, it appears that the ancient Egyptian, Etruscan, Syrian, and Greek plows were equal to the modern plows of the South of France, part of Austria, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, Pd Reins were not used in plowing in ancient Egypt, but are not uncommon in modern Egypt.
An illustration of the modern Syrian plow (d) is given to afford means of comparison.
The share and moldboard in this more nearly resemble our form than do tprobable that his artist has improved on the original.
Figure c gives views of two yokes and the details of the modern Syrian plow As before stated, it is rather of the shovel-plow order.
The goad has a shovel at one end for clearing dirt from th
high heels were in vogue among the English ladies.
See The boot and shoe makers' assistant, London, 1853, for an excellent display of early foot-coverings.
The Syrian shoes are made to be easily shifted on and off, as they are left at the entrance to a mosque or room.
They are made of various materials foSyrian shoes are made to be easily shifted on and off, as they are left at the entrance to a mosque or room.
They are made of various materials for indoor or outdoor wear; leather for the latter.
They have boots also, but the representations of their foot-gear with which we are favored by travelers make very poor affairs of either shoes or boots, they appearing to have no broad sole, but to resemble heavy moccasins.
Isambard M. Brunel invented, in 1810, a machine for ma the time he wrote.
The early indications of the use of iron are glanced at under that caption in this work (see iron); and a cluster of authorities, Egyptian, Syrian, and Greek, cite periods between 1350 and 1537 B. C.; but how was the colossus of Osymandyas cut?
（2100 B. C. Lenglet, usher.) Iron and steel were known, but the
were used anciently in Europe.
Plutarch says that the chewing of mallows is very wholesome, and the stalk of asphodel very luscious.
See also tea.
d. Snuffling was practiced by the Aztecs and by the Brazilians.
See Brazilian snuff-mill, Fig. 5262, page 2232.
Roger Pane, in 1494, speaks of the inhalation of snuff through tubes.
The principal tobacco of commerce is derived from the Nicotiana tabacum, the American plant; the Nicotiana persica, or Persian tobacco, and N. rustica, or Syrian, are used in Europe and Asia.
It is also grown in Africa, and the native name indicates that it is of the common stock.
The genus Nicotiana belongs to the Solanaceoe, which includes the nightshade, potato, and tomato.
The name Nicotiana is derived from Jean Nicot, the minister of France in Portugal, 1660, who first made the plant known in France.
It has been conjectured that the Asiatic variety is derived from China, which has been regarded as another center of production.
in amphorae, or jars, which were closed with a lid, luted with clay or pitch, sealed, and then placed upright in the cellar.
The Romans had several different modes of expressing the juice.
The grapes were crushed beneath a wooden beam, or in a press, the platen (prelum) of which was driven down upon the bed (torcular,) by wedges.
Sometimes a lever was used for the purpose; a pair of screws are shown in a Pompeian painting.
The oil-presses were of substantially similar construction.
Syrian wine-press (from Kitto).
The treading operation was also common and is represented in a mosaic of a temple of Bacchus at Rome.
It is substantially the same as that used in the Syrian wine-press of modern times, shown in the accompanying cut.
A tube for withdrawing liquors from a jar, bottle, or cask.
It has a larger opening at the lower end and a smaller one at the top. Being thrust in at the bung-hole of a wine-cask, for instance, it fills to the l