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The accompanying cut is from a painting in a tomb near the Pyramids. The action indicates the side position of the mouth-pieces and holes. Of the chromatic scale we may learn more from what Pythagoras has written, for no doubt he derived his information from the Egyptian priests, who were scientific musicians. The flutes of ancient Egypt were single and double; the latter are shown on the paintings of Eleythya. In one case the flute is apparently blown through the nostril, like the New Zealand flute. Herodotus (450 B. C.) mentions the marching of the troops of Alyattes the Lydian to the sound of pipes and harps, and flutes masculine and feminine. This has been understood to refer to the sexes of the players, but more probably indicates lower and higher musical pitch. Flutes among the classic Greeks were made of asses' bones, which are said to be remarkably solid. The euphony of the sound may be presumed to be in the inverse ratio of the natural tone of the original prop
ther purposes. It is also used for packing between the flanges of pipes, being previously soaked in oil. A commoner article is made of other coarse fiber, such as jute (cochorus), asclepias, sorghum, bark, straw, bamboo, grass, gama grass, New Zealand flax, and other materials. Mill′board-cut′ter. A machine for cutting heavy board, for book-covers and pasteboard boxes. Fig. 3149 shows a machine of this class. The sheets of pasteboard are fed between two shafts which carry disks o an experiment at the Washington Arsenal, 1864. Coehorns are, owing to their lightness and portability, very efficacious in dislodging an enemy from covered positions. During a war waged by the English against some of the Maori tribes of New Zealand, about the year 1843-44, one of the native chiefs with his forces intrenched himself in a pah or corral on the top of a hill, whence the means in the hands of the troops failed to dislodge him. In this emergency an engineer officer was dispat
rise to a host of similar productions : oceans and river routes, pilgrims' progresses, paradises lost, funerals of Napoleon, moral, immoral, and temperance serials, trades, arts, politics, overland routes to India, emigration to Australia and New Zealand, and, to cap the climax, a cyclorama of the great Lisbon earthquake, which happened about one hundred years previously. Pan-o-ram′ic Cam′e-ra. (Photography.) One in which pictures may be taken on one flat plate, including an angle of 9streets. This was forbidden in Paris by an ordinance in 1395. It was practiced till 1750 in Edinburgh. Three centuries since the royal residences of Spain were destitute of privies, while the circumnavigators found them among the Maories of New Zealand, the antipodes. Laws ordering that every house in Paris should be furnished with a privy were passed in 1513, 1533, 1697, and 1700. A non-compliance was rendered penal. In other cities of France the same regulations were made. Prize-bo<
scopic objects, for varnish, and as a cement for optical glasses. CaoutchoucSiphonia brasiliensiBrazilThe solidified milky juice of many families of plants. Is very elastic; has the property of uniting with sulphur, magnesia, etc.; is used for submarine coating, etc.; is of the highest value in mechanics and manufactures. Ficus elastica, etcEast Indies Urceola elasticaE. Indian Islands CopalHymenaea (various)W. Africa, E. Indies, South AmericaUsed for varnish. DammarDammara australisNew Zealand.Used in making varnish. Obtained from Cowdi pine. Found where the tree has formerly grown. Dragon's bloodCalamus dracoEast IndiesDeep reddish-brown color. Used (after being dissolved in alcohol) for staining material for marble, wood, leather, etc., and to color varnishes. Canaries Dracaena draco, etcSouth America ElemiTropicsOintment, plasters, varnish. GalbanumFerula galbanifluaLevantUsed in pharmacy. GambogeCambogia guttaCambogia, Siam, etcYellow. Used as a pigment and as a g
t used in Italy. Ancient Greek spade. Irish spade. Japanese spade. The spades of the Feejees, when first discovered, were poles of the mangrove-tree, slanted off at the end, to form a sort of chisel. A group of three or four men, each with such a tool, stood in a circle, and with repeated strokes loosened a circular piece of earth of about 2 feet surface diameter; the spades were then used as levers to raise the mass, which was then broken up by boys. The Maori implement of New Zealand was substantially similar. Digging with a sharp hand-spike. The same of Tahiti. Rice's spade-bayonet. 2. (Seal-engraving.) A soft iron tool, 3 or 4 inches long, and with the end filed to an angle of 45° and charged with diamond-powder. It is used to dress off irregularities from the rounded surface of a cameo figure. 3. (Nautical.) A cutting implement used in flensing the whale. A blubber-spade. Spade-bay′o-net. (Military.) A broad-bladed bayonet, which may be
baskets, caps, etc., from the leaves. FlaxLinum usitatissimumTemperate climesVarieties numerous. Yarn, linens, cambrics, etc. Flax (New Zealand)Phormium tenaxNew Zealand, etcStrong. Cloth, baskets, cordage, etc. GrassesVery numerousGenerallySome species, as wheat-straw, used for making paper. All afford fiber variously used; hemp. Bark made into sacking, and used for beds, etc. Nettle-fiberUrtica dioica, etcGenerallyIrish variety, worked up into collars and other fancy articles. New Zealand flaxPhormium tenaxNew Zealand, etc(See Flax.) Neyanda-fiberSanseviera zeylanicaCeylonResembles and is used as a substitute for flax. PalmVery numerousTropicsSNew Zealand, etc(See Flax.) Neyanda-fiberSanseviera zeylanicaCeylonResembles and is used as a substitute for flax. PalmVery numerousTropicsSpecies very numerous: all afford fiber of some kind. PalmiteJuncus serratusS. AfricaA rush. Used for plaiting, thatching, baskets, etc. Palmyra-palmBorassus flabelliformusTropical AsiaLeaves made into mats, baskets, carpets, hats, umbrellas, etc. Paper mulberryBroussonetia papyriferaFiji, etc(See Mulberry.) Papyrus (paper)Cype
y submerged. It approached the Samoa or Navigator's Islands about half past 2 in the morning of the 14th, and the sea, after rising to an unprecedented hight, more gradually sank; this alternate rising and falling continued for several days. New Zealand was reached about an hour later; here the water gradually receded, until at Port Littleton the whole harbor was left dry and continued so for some twenty minutes; the water then returned in a perpendicular wave, 10 or 12 feet high. About fiveand Terr.Medium, white. Cowdi pineDammara australisTemperate climesWood very durable. Turnery, etc. CypressCupressis sempervirensSouthern U. S.Soft. Carpentry, shingles, etc. CypressCupressis thyoidesFlorida, etc. CypressTorreya taxifoliaNew ZealandHard. Shipbuilding, etc. DeodarCedrus deodarHimalaya and IndiaWood very durable. Building, etc. Yellow color. DogwoodBedfordia salicinaTasmaniaHard; beautifully marked. Ornamental furniture. DogwoodCornus floridaEastern U. S.Hard, red. Tu