etting the air in motion, and also for brushing away flies.
The honor of attending the king in the capacity of fanbearer was conferred upon his sons, and we see them in many Egyptian paintings and sculptures, with the insignia of princes and carrying the flabella, a wing or bunch of feathers on the end of a long handle.
Among other paintings may be specially cited that of the triumph of Rameses III., the great Sesostris of Herodotus, about 1355 B. C. The flabellum is shown in the tombs of Beni-Hassan, Thebes, and Alabastron, of dates from 1706 to 1355 B. C. In more humble life, men are represented keeping the flies away from the drink prepared for the reapers in the field.
See bellows; blower; Punkah; ventilator; and list under air-appliances.
Cape hoc flabellum, et ventulum huic sic facito, — Take this fan, and give her thus a little air.
Fans made of ostrich and other feathers maintained their hold upon the people, and were common in the rei
at is, are present in the sand which is most readily accessible, or are used to correct such faulty admixture.
The following analyses are approximate:—
Oxide of lead3244
Oxide of iron217
Glass was known in Egypt in the reign of Osirtasen, 740 B. C. He may have reigned about thirty-four years when Joseph came to Egypt.
In the tombs of Beni-Hassan of this date, the glass-blowers are shown at work (a), each with a bulb of glass on the end of his blow-pipe, into which he is blowing, while he keeps his glass hot by exposure to the fire.
The same operation is depicted in other Egyptian tombs of various epochs.
The glass at the end of the blowpipe is colored green in the original painting.
Another representation (b) of the same process is shown in a tomb at Thebes, where one workman labors at the bulb of glass in the earlier sta
he bait, and is gradually wound in again as his struggles become less violent, bringing him to land or to the landing-net.
Reel for cotton yarns.
The reel represented in the accompanying figure is from an ancient painting at Beni-Hassan, and was used for winding the cord by which the fish-spear or bident was recovered after throwing.
In its construction it was merely a stirrupshaped piece of metal, and a turning pin on which the cord was wound.
a knife like our modern leather-knife, and by the same means which we adopt, by turning the piece of leather round as he cuts.
Two of the coils are represented hanging up in the shop.
The process of preparing the hemp is shown in the tombs of Beni-Hassan and Thebes.
Ropes of the palm are found in the tombs, and it was probably almost as common as coir or cocoa-nut fiber in India.
The ropes which supported the planks of the Hellespont bridge constructed for Xerxes were of papyrus and fla
lso bobbin-winder, Figs.
755, 756, pages 317, 318.
The Chinese abacus.
See abacus; Schwan-pan.
（Husbandry.) A hooked blade, flattened in the plane of its curve and sharpened on its inner edge.
One side of the blade is notched, so as always to sharpen with a serrated edge.
Egyptian sickles (1500 B. C.).
Fig. 5059 shows some patterns of sickles as used by the Egyptians, it may be said, from time immemorial; for the tombs of Beni-Hassan and Thebes show that it was used in the times of Jacob and of Moses, an interval in which 70 persons and their servants became 3,000,000.
The sickles are drawn from colored views in the tombs.
In some, the blade is colored blue, to represent iron or steel; in others, it is colored to represent bronze, which was no doubt the metal more commonly used for this purpose; in fact, bronze was used even for surgical instruments down to A. D. 79, as is proved by the discovery of a complete se