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ible, the earth yields abundantly; and coal, iron, gold, silver, and lead, are found in the mountains; but the largest part of the country must always be devoted to pastoral purposes. Its cloudless skies, lofty mountains, and green intervales, offer grand and varied scenery to the eye and imagination. The population has generally been over-estimated. In 1870 the census reported it at 88,374; and in 1857 it may be safely computed at about 35,000 or 40,000. When Brigham looked up at his Alpine walls and their warders, he believed his stronghold impregnable. Its defiles were guarded by hardy mountaineers, trained to blind obedience and pitiless zeal by ten years in the wilderness; and the Indian tribes, the intervening desert, and an almost arctic winter, were counted on as sure and cruel allies. He had seen the unopposed emigrant fall their victim; and the prophecy seemed safe that; great as were the odds, he could foil an invading army. In spite of his undoubted ability, and w
ner of which it is placed, is bounded far away to the east by the Black Hills and other flanking ranges of the Rocky Mountains, on the northeast by the Wind River Mountains, on the south by the Uintah Mountains, and on the west by the mighty Wahsatch range. These mountain-ranges tower with a crest-line of from 10,000 to 12,000 feet in height, broken by peaks that are often over 13,000 feet high, sometimes snow-clad in August. In the valleys and canions, whose narrow bottoms are threaded by Alpine torrents, the precipitous walls rise from 800 to 1,000 feet perpendicular; and here gather the winter snows to the depth, sometimes, of fifty feet, forming, too, in favorable sites, avalanches and land-slides of great extent. The Uintah Mountains break down in terraces to the foot-hills; and they, to the wide, arid, sterile plateau, over which the troops had toiled from the South Pass. The soil of this table-land, like that of many other deserts, contains the elements of fertility, but is
Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Commands of Lieutenand- General Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 1: parentage, and Early years. (search)
ed than the southern. Settlements, therefore, naturally proceeded from the smoother regions of Western Pennsylvania, into the hills of Northwestern Virginia; and thus it came to pass that, in the latter district, the northern counties were at first the more cultivated, and the southern bore to them the relation of frontiers. The emigrants found that they had not descended very far from the loftier ranges of the Alleghany and Cheat mountains before they left behind them the rigors of their Alpine climate. Wherever the valleys were cleared of their woods, they clothed themselves with the richest sward, and teemed with corn, wheat, the vine, the peach, and all the products of Eastern Virginia. But this fertile region could only be reached from the east by a few rude highways, almost impracticable for carriages, which wound their way among and over the ridges of a wide labyrinth of mountains. Hither the patriarch of the Jacksons removed before the war of the American Revolution.
the 10th I arrived at Valley Head, and climbing Lookout Mountain, encamped on the plateau at Indian Falls. The following day I went down into Broomtown Valley to Alpine. The march of McCook's corps from Valley Head to Alpine was in pursuance of orders directing it to advance on Summerville, the possession of which place wouldAlpine was in pursuance of orders directing it to advance on Summerville, the possession of which place would further threaten the enemy's communications, it being assumed that Bragg was in full retreat south, as he had abandoned Chattanooga on the 8th. This assumption soon proved erroneous, however, and as we, while in Broomtown Valley, could not communicate directly with Thomas's corps, the scattered condition of the army began to alary necessitated more or less isolation of the different corps. McCook's corps of three divisions had crossed two difficult ridges-Sand and Lookout mountains — to Alpine in Broomtown Valley with intentions against Summerville. Thomas's corps had marched by the way of Stevens's Gap toward Lafayette, which he expected to occupy. C
sville, and reconnoitre boldly toward Rome and Alpine. These movements were completed by McCook's of infantry thrown forward to the vicinity of Alpine, which was executed on the eighth and ninth ofnt, the cavalry was ordered to push, by way of Alpine and Broomtown Valley, and strike the enemy's rss-Roads, at the foot of Stevens's Gap, and at Alpine, a distance of forty miles from flank to flankin's brigade of Davis's division marched on Alpine, Ga., to support the cavalry. Heg's brigade, ofeadquarters of the corps were moved to near Alpine, Ga. On arriving at Alpine, I discovered thatAlpine, I discovered that the enemy had not retreated very far from Chattanooga, and, not being able to communicate with Genemerville as ordered. My corps was isolated at Alpine, and, had it moved upon Summerville, it would tember 12.--My command rested in position near Alpine. September. 13.--Orders were received from and. My corps was moved up the mountain at Alpine, Ga., on the night of the thirteenth, and on the[2 more...]
sed to the burning rays of the sun, they reached the vicinity of Lafayette, Georgia, on the ninth. The enemy's cavalry, under General Wilder, had already reached Alpine, and driven back Pegram's cavalry, and it was reported that a large body of the enemy was in the direction of McLemore's Cove. Breckinridge's division, composeto Lafayette from the southward. On the morning of the thirteenth, our scouts reported a large force of the enemy advancing on our position from the direction of Alpine, twenty-five miles south-west of Lafayette. Adams's brigade was immediately thrown across the road to oppose the threatened advance, Stovall forming on the leftame down from Knoxville to Loudon and Cleveland. On the morning of the fourteenth, it was reported that the enemy had abandoned his position in the vicinity of Alpine, and that he was moving up McLemore's Cove in the direction of Chattanooga. General Cheatham's division was ordered to proceed toward Crawfish Springs, about hal
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 8.89 (search)
Gap, forty-six miles south of Chattanooga, and to occupy Alpine, east of the mountains. Thomas was ordered to cross the mose at hand. On the 10th McCook's three divisions were at Alpine. Crittenden's corps by September 4th was across the Tenneaylor told me that McCook had encamped the night before at Alpine, twenty miles from Lafayette, toward which his march was directed. Our cavalry pickets had been driven in on the Alpine road the afternoon before, and had been replaced by infantry. report by Lieutenant Baylor, a brisk fire opened upon the Alpine road, two miles from Lafayette. I said to my staff, as wemarching to five thousand men. We learned, on reaching the Alpine road, that General Daniel Adams's skirmishers had been attp of Lookout Mountain, and remained all day of the 13th at Alpine. His cavalry had taken some prisoners from General Adams,lker, and myself, together, and told us that McCook was at Alpine, Crittenden at Lee and Gordon's Mills, and Thomas in McLem
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 4: campaign of the Army of the Cumberland from Murfreesboro'to Chattanooga. (search)
roomtown Valley, to turn Bragg's left. These movements were promptly made, and revealed the alarming truth to Rosecrans. His cavalry on the right, supported by McCook's corps, descended Lookout Mountain, reconnoitered Broomtown Valley as far as Alpine, and discovered that Bragg had not retreated on Rome. Crittenden moved rapidly to Ringgold, where, on pushing Wilder forward to Tunnel Hill, near Buzzard's Roost (where he skirmished heavily), it was discovered that the Confederates, in strong f gathering force at Lafayette, opposite his center, to strike a heavy blow at the scattered Army of the Cumberland. He saw, too, that its position was a perilous one. Its wings, one at Lee and Gordon's Mill, on the Chickamauga, and the other at Alpine, were full forty miles apart, and offered Bragg a rare opportunity to terribly cripple, if not destroy or capture his foe. But the golden opportunity too soon passed. Rosecrans, on perceiving the danger, issued orders for the concentration of hi
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 2: Strategy.—General divisions of the Art.—Rules for planning a Campaign.—Analysis of the military operations of Napoleon (search)
was then of no importance in itself, and was a mere nominal capital. It, however, greatly influenced our reputation abroad, and required many brilliant successes to wash the blot from our national escutcheon. Lines of defence in strategy are either permanent or temporary. The great military frontiers of a state, especially when strengthened by natural and artificial obstacles, such as chains of mountains, rivers, lines of fortresses, &c., are regarded as permanent lines of defence. The Alpine range between France and Piedmont, with its fortified passes; the Rhine, the Oder, and the Elbe, with their strongly-fortified places; the Pyrenees, with Bayonne at one extremity and Perpignon at the other; the triple range of fortresses on the Belgian frontier — are all permanent lines of defence. The St. Lawrence river is a permanent line of defence for Canada; and the line of lake Champlain, the upper St. Lawrence, and the lakes, for the United States. Temporary lines of defence are s
y held by the enemy, who could not be persuaded to leave. Baird's division came up next morning; but both together were far too light, and wisely fell back, after a smart skirmish, retreating down the cove. And now Crittenden, justly alarmed for his communications, made Sept. 12. a rapid flank march to Gordon's mill — Wilder, covering his rear, having to fight smartly at Sill's tan-yard by the way; while McCook, having completely flanked Bragg's position by a southward advance nearly to Alpine, far on Bragg's left, became satisfied that the Rebel army was not retreating, an that he was in very deep water: so he commenced, Sept. 13. by order, a very rapid movement to connect with Thomas, away on his left. In doing this, he was carried down into Lookout valley, thence up the mountain and down again; so that he only closed up to Thomas on the 17th. Bragg had sprung his trap too soon. Pollard sees the matter in different light; and his view seems worth considering. He says:
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