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B. Crittenden had been assigned to the command of this district by the President. The high rank given him has been cited by Pollard, who speaks of him as a captain in the old army, as a piece of favoritism. But this is an error. He was one of the senior officers who resigned. He was a graduate of West Point, of the year 1832. He resigned, and was reappointed a captain in the Mounted Rifles in 1846, was brevetted major for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, Mexico, was made a major in 1848, and lieutenant-colonel in 1856. He was a Kentuckian, of a family distinguished for gallantry and talents, and known as an intelligent and intrepid officer; and it was hoped that his long service would enable him to supplement the inexperience of the gallant Zollicoffer. Crittenden took command of the district, November 24th, and made his headquarters at Knoxville. Thither General Johnston telegraphed him to dispatch without delay the supplies and intre
Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Commands of Lieutenand- General Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 3: in Mexico. (search)
to repair his omission, and again placed himself between the Americans and his capital, in a line of defences, which, if less elaborate than those in its front, was still formidable. Before San Augustin was the village of San Antonio, which he entrenched and occupied; at a considerable distance to tie west of it he crowned an insulated hill at Contreras, with a strong detachment of infantry and artillery, and, in the rear of this post, he placed his heaviest force at the little village of Cherubusco, which he had also strengthened with field-works. A force at least three times as large as the American, with a hundred cannon, thus awaited their attack in position of their own selecting. But Santa Anna had committed the fatal blunder of choosing the two points which were the keys of his whole front, San Antonio and Contreras, so far apart, that they could not efficiently support each other. After heavy skirmishing on the 19th of August, General Scott turned the hill of Contreras by a
Fitzhugh Lee, General Lee, Chapter 11: Chancellorsville. (search)
ndition and reorganizing it. He now divided it into three corps instead of two-three divisions to the corps-commanded respectively by Longstreet, Ewell, and A. P. Hill. Ewell had been next in command to Jackson, participating in the glories of his Valley campaign, and maintaining his reputation as an excellent assistant to his great chief. He graduated at West Point in 1840, and served twenty-one years in the United States Army; was in Mexico, and brevetted for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco; served on the frontier in the dragoons; was forty-three years old; had lost a leg at second Manassas, and was just able to rejoin the army. He succeeded to much of Jackson's spirit and the quickness and ardor of his strokes in battle, was kind-hearted, eccentric, and absent-minded. It has been said this last trait came very near being fatal to him, for, forgetting he had lost his leg, he suddenly started one day to walk and came down on the stump, imperfectly healed, which produced a v
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 9. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Stonewall Jackson in Lexington, Va. (search)
boarding-house. I shall never forget the impression his manner and appearance made upon me. Boy as I was, I looked upon him with a reverential awe. I had heard the stories of his struggles in early life; of how he had walked from his house in Lewis county to Washington to receive his appointment as a cadet to West Point; of his being ill prepared, and the difficulty he had in keeping up with his classes; and then I had heard of his brilliant career in Mexico, of his mounting the walls of Cherubusco with. the American flag in his hands; and here now was the hero of my youthful enthusiasm before me. He was so different from what I thought a hero ought to be! There was so little animation, no grace, no enthusiasm. All was stiffness and awkwardness. He sat perfectly erect, his back touching the back of the chair nowhere; the large hands were spread out, one on each knee, while the large feet, sticking out at an exact right angle to the leg (the angle seeming to have been determined w
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 10. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Notes and Queries. did General Armistead fight on the Federal side at First Manassas or confess when dying at Gettysburg that he had been engaged in an Unholy cause? (search)
convictions of duty into the Confederate army: 1. In reference to the charge that he fought on the Union side at First Manassas (Bull Run), it is easy to show that it was a physical impossibility for him to have been present at that battle on either side. General L. A. Armistead was the son of General Walker K. Armistead, of the old army, was himself a West-Pointer, entered the Mexican war as First Lieutenant, was breveted Captain for gallant and meritorious conduct at Contreras, and Churubusco, and Major for his conduct at Molino del Rey. In March, 1855, he was commissioned Captain in the Sixth Infantry, and at the breaking out of the war he had been made Major and was serving on the Pacific coast. When Albert Sidney Johnston resigned his commission in the United States army, and, after being relieved by General Sumner, begun his weary and perilous journey across the plains, Major Armistead accompanied him. General Johston wrote as follows to his wife from Vallecito: V
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Contreras, battle of (search)
e line of the march of Cortez, more than 300 years before. From the lofty summits of the mountains the American army could look down into the magnificent valley of Mexico and see the capital in the distance. Down into that valley the army cautiously moved, for resistance was expected at the mountain passes. General Twiggs, with his division, led the way; and on Aug. 11 encamped at St. Augustine, with the strong fortress of San Antonio before him. Close upon his right were the heights of Churubusco, crowned with fortifications finished and unfinished, and manned by several thousand Mexicans; and not far off was the strongly fortified camp of Contreras, on a rugged height, containing between 6,000 and 7,000 men under General Valencia. In the rear of it was Santa Ana with 12,000 men as a reserve. In the afternoon of Aug. 19, Generals Twiggs and Pillow, assisted by Gens. Persifer F. Smith and Cadwallader, attacked the camp of Contreras, and a sharp conflict ensued, with almost contin
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Craig, Lewis S. 1837- (search)
Craig, Lewis S. 1837- Military officer; born in Virginia; entered the army as a lieutenant of dragoons in 1837; became assistant commissary of subsistence in 1840; and won the brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel by bravery at Monterey, Contreras, and Churubusco, being wounded in the latter battle. He was killed by some deserters while on duty near New River, Cal., June 6, 1852.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mexico, War with (search)
l. From that very spot on the lofty Cordilleras, Cortez first looked down upon the quiet valley of Mexico, centuries before. Scott now beheld that Battle of Churubusco. spacious panorama, the seat of the capital of the Aztecs—the Halls of the Montezumas. He pushed cautiously forward, and approached the stronghold before the city. The fortified camp of Contreras was taken by the Americans on Aug. 20. Then the strong fortress of San Antonio yielded the same day. The heights of Churubusco were attacked. Santa Ana advanced, and soon the whole region became one great battle-field. Churubusco was taken, and Santa Ana fled towards the capital. A MexicChurubusco was taken, and Santa Ana fled towards the capital. A Mexican army, 30,000 strong, had in a single day been broken up by another less than one-third its strength in number, and at almost every step the Americans were successful. Full 4,000 Mexicans were killed and wounded, 3,000 were made prisoners, and thirty-seven pieces of cannon were captured on that memorable day. The Americans had
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), San Antonio, battle of (search)
San Antonio, battle of One of three parts of a general engagement fought on Aug. 20, 1847, between the Mexican and American troops, the others being known as the battles of Contreras and Churubusco. See Mexico, War with.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Smith, Persifer Frazer 1798- (search)
Military officer; born in Philadelphia, Pa., November, 1798; graduated at Princeton in 1815; became a lawyer in New Orleans; was adjutant-general of Louisiana, and a volunteer under General Gaines in two campaigns of the Seminole War as colonel of Louisiana volunteers. When General Taylor went to the Rio Grande in 1846, Smith led a brigade of Louisiana volunteers under him. He was brevetted brigadiergeneral for his services at Monterey, and major-general for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco in August, 1847. He was a commissioner in arranging the armistice before the city of Mexico, and after the conquest he was made civil and military governor of the city (October, 1847). and commander of the 2d Division of the United States Army. In 1848 he was governor of Vera Cruz, and subsequently commanded the departments of California and Texas. Just before his death, in Fort Leavenworth, Kan., May 17, 1858, lie was appointed to command the Utah expedition against the Mormons (q. v
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