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navy; but the River system of Kentucky itself was tributary to the North. The Cumberland and the Tennessee Rivers, rising in the Alleghanies, flow first southwest, and thence by sharp bends to the North, traversing respectively the northern and Southern portions of Tennessee, and finally emptying close together into the Ohio near its mouth. The history of the attempt to defend these Rivers by forts at Donelson and Henry will be given in detail hereafter. General Grant had possession of Smithland and Paducah, at their mouths. Indeed, the outlets and navigable waters of all the Rivers of Kentucky, the Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, and Green, were in the hands of the Federals, and gave them the great military advantage of easy communication with their base by water-ways. Green and Barren Rivers, locked and dammed, cut the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, so as to render any point in advance of Bowling Green unsafe; while Bowling Green itself, situated on the turnpike, Railroad, and Riv
le. I am not more than able to patrol the town. In relation to the movements of the enemy at Eddyville, I have reliable information. The gunboat steamed up to the town, and steamed back again. A company or squad of twenty-five cavalry, from Smithland, marched within four miles of Eddyville, took all the double-barreled guns they could find, robbed some women of their jewelry, seized several horses and mules, destroyed some property, insulted some women, captured one citizen as prisoner, and returned to Smithland. He reports at Calhoun, Owensboro, and Henderson, about 3,000 Federal troops, who shift from one post to another, and when moving steal everything that they meet, and take everything valuable that they can carry. This is not an unfair sample of the reported conduct of the Federal troops on this line. Brigadier-General Tilghman, who succeeded Alcorn in command at Hopkinsville, reported, November 2d, that he was threatened by a heavy body of the enemy. He adds that
few who had the requisite training, that they could not do their best. And this was especially the case in a branch of the military art so scientific and technical as engineering. Hence the two forts were placed within the limits of Tennessee; Henry on the east bank of the Tennessee, Donelson on the west bank of the Cumberland, only twelve miles apart. The gates to the State were thus set as near its outer edge as was possible under the circumstances. Near their mouths, not far from Smithland and Paducah, the rivers approach within three miles of each other. Here, it is said, an intrenched camp might have commanded both streams; but this position was on the soil of Kentucky, and Tennessee had neither the right to take nor the strength to maintain it. A look at the map will show that the boundary between these two States is nearly a straight line westward from Virginia to the Tennessee River; it then follows this stream almost due south some twelve or fourteen miles, when i
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., In command in Missouri. (search)
of the loyal Union forces under Generals Anderson and Nelson, as well as of those already encamped opposite Louisville, under Colonel Rousseau. I have reenforced, yesterday, Paducah with two regiments, and will continue to strengthen the position with men and artillery. As soon as General Smith, who commands there, is reinforced sufficiently to enable him to spread his forces, he will have to take and hold Mayfield and Lovelaceville, to be in the rear and flank of Columbus, and to occupy Smithland, controlling in this way the mouths of both the Tennessee and the Cumberland rivers. At the same time Colonel Rousseau should bring his force, in-. creased if possible, by two Ohio regiments, in boats to Henderson, and, taking the Henderson and Nashville railroad, occupy Hopkinsville; while General Nelson should go with a force of five thousand by railroad to Louisville, and from there to Bowling Green. As the population in all the counties through which the above railroads pass are loya
Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Commissioned Brigadier--General--command at Ironton, Mo.-Jefferson City-Cape Girardeau- General Prentiss-Seizure of Paducah-headquarters at Cairo (search)
their usual avocations with assurance of the protection of the government. This was evidently a relief to them; but the majority would have much preferred the presence of the other army. I reinforced Paducah rapidly from the troops at Cape Girardeau; and a day or two later General C. F. Smith, a most accomplished soldier, reported at Cairo and was assigned to the command of the post at the mouth of the Tennessee. In a short time it was well fortified and a detachment was sent to occupy Smithland, at the mouth of the Cumberland. The State government of Kentucky at that time was rebel in sentiment, but wanted to preserve an armed neutrality between the North and the South, and the governor really seemed to think the State had a perfect right to maintain a neutral position. The rebels already occupied two towns in the State, Columbus and Hickman, on the Mississippi; and at the very moment the National troops were entering Paducah from the Ohio front, General Lloyd Tilghman--a Co
Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Investment of Fort Donelson-the naval operations-attack of the enemy-assaulting the works-surrender of the Fort (search)
thers were leaving singly and in squads all night. It is probable that the Confederate force at Donelson, on the 15th of February, 1862, was 21,000 in round numbers. On the day Fort Donelson fell I had 27,000 men to confront the Confederate lines and guard the road four or five miles to the left, over which all our supplies had to be drawn on wagons. During the 16th, after the surrender, additional reinforcements arrived. During the siege General [William Tecumseh] Sherman had been sent to Smithland, at the mouth of the Cumberland River, to forward reinforcements and supplies to me. At that time he was my senior in rank and there was no authority of law to assign a junior to command a senior of the same grade. But every boat that came up with supplies or reinforcements brought a note of encouragement from Sherman, asking me to call upon him for any assistance he could render and saying that if he could be of service at the front I might send for him and he would wave rank.
Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Promoted Major-General of Volunteers-Unoccupied territory-advance upon Nashville-situation of the troops-confederate retreat- relieved of the command-restored to the command-general Smith (search)
r that purpose, reached me after Donelson was invested. I received nothing direct which indicated that the department commander knew we were in possession of Donelson. I was reporting regularly to the chief of staff, who had been sent to Cairo, soon after the troops left there, to receive all reports from the front and to telegraph the substance to the St. Louis headquarters. Cairo was at the southern end of the telegraph wire. Another line was started at once from Cairo to Paducah and Smithland, at the mouths of the Tennessee and Cumberland respectively. My dispatches were all sent to Cairo by boat, but many of those addressed to me were sent to the operator at the end of the advancing wire and he failed to forward them. This operator afterwards proved to be a rebel; he deserted his post after a short time and went south taking his dispatches with him. A telegram from General McClellan to me of February 16th, the day of the surrender, directing me to report in full the situatio
ation, the Press, as well as individuals, should uphold the existing Government or be treated as its enemies. They consider their duty fully discharged in reference to these newspapers by this presentment, leaving them to the wholesome action of public opinion. They recommend all loyal citizens, all public officers, all municipal corporations, vigorously to withhold all patronage from such newspapers as do not hereafter give their unqualified support to the National Government. Smithland, Kentucky, was occupied by the National troops to-day.--Stocking-knitting associations were organized by the ladies of Lebanon County, Pennsylvania. This day General William F. Smith, with a force of several thousand men from the camps in the vicinity of the Chain Bridge, on the Potomac, proceeded to Lewinsville, Va., for the purpose of reconnoitring and obtaining forage. Upon arriving at that place his troops were permitted to rest from about half-past 9 o'clock A. M., till three o'clock
es and one lieutenant killed, and sixteen wounded.--(Doc. 229.) The bark Island City left Boston, Mass., for Fortress Monroe, Va., with two hundred and fifty of the rebels captured at Hatteras, who had been released from captivity at Fort Warren by the National Government. Last night a successful little movement occurred on the Cumberland River, near Paducah, which goes to show that our friends in that region are alert and active. It seems that twenty-eight mounted Federals left Smithland on a scouting expedition, and during the evening they happened upon a corn-shucking. Thinking to have a good time, they picketed their horses, stacked their arms, and pitched in. One of our friends quietly slipped away and gave the alarm to Capt. Wilcox, who, with fourteen of his men, proceeded to the scene of merry-making, quietly took possession of the Hessians' horses and arms, and then captured the whole party, except the captain. The latter endeavored to escape, when he was shot.
treated in the most handsome manner on board the Rinaldo, and at Bermuda by the British authorities. They were received at Southampton by the officers of the Confederate steamer Nashville and other gentlemen. A large crowd gathered together in the dock to catch a glimpse of men who had caused such anxiety, but no demonstration was made on their landing.--Manchester Guardian, January 30. The Twelfth regiment of Iowa Volunteers, under command of Colonel Jackson J. Wood, arrived at Smithland, Ky., to-day. The House of Delegates of Virginia passed resolutions in secret session, thanking, in appropriate terms, General Jos. E. Johnson for his distinguished services, and conferring, as a slight testimonial of appreciation by the Legislature, the right for life of annually appointing two cadets to the State Military Institute.--Norfolk Day Book, January 31. The rebel Major-General Earl Van Dorn, issued an order assuming command of the Trans-Mississippi District Department, e
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