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cular brass plates inclosing disks of leather. The upper delivery is into a pump-dale, which conducts the water over the side of the ship. The chain-pumps (chapelets) used by the architect Perronet, to drain the coffer-dams of his bridges at Orleans and elsewhere, were worked by manual, horse, and water power, and are described in Cresy's Encyclopaedia of Civil Engineering. The bucketwheel he used at the bridge of Nenilly is described under noria. The tube of the hand-worked chapelet cty to thirty turns in a minute, according to the depth; 500 cubic feet of water were raised per hour, 4 1/2 feet of the chain being wound round at each revolution. Chain-pump. Another of Perronet's chain-pumps (d), used at the bridge of Orleans, was worked by horse-power, twelve at a time being employed, and making 140 turns per hour. The pallets acted as buckets, and passed at the rate of 9,660 per hour. The same master-wheel drove two separate chapelets, with the power above stat
ive and small dispersive power. Sp. gr. 3.521. Among the celebrated diamonds may be noted the following:— Great Mogul. Found in 1550, in Golconda, and seen by Tavernier. Weighed 793 carats; cut to 279 carats (carat, 4 grains). Russian. Taken from a Brahminical idol by a French soldier; sold to the Empress Catherine for £ 90,000 and an annuity of £ 4,000. Weighs 194 carats. Pitt. Brought from India by Mr. Pitt, the grandfather of the first Earl of Chatham; sold to the Regent Duke of Orleans, in 1717, for £ 135,000. Weighed when rough, 400 carats; cut to 136 1/2 carats. Napoleon placed it in the hilt of his sword. Koh-i-noor. Seen by Tavernier in 1665, in the possession of the Great Mogul. Seized by Nadir Shah, in 1739, at the taking of Delhi. Became the property of Runjeet Sing. Captured by the English at the taking of the Punjab. Presented to the Queen by the East India Company, in 1850; weighed in the rough 800 carats, cut to 186 1/16 carats; recut to 103 3/4 carats.
ussia. The derrick-crane was used on this building, and on the Capitol Extension also. Fig. 4648 represents a hanging scaffold contrived by Perronet for the workmen employed in dressing and pointing the masonry of the arches of the bridge at Orleans. It was suspended from a frame which straddled the parapet, and was rolled from place to place as required. The platform could be raised and lowered and held at any desired hight. Hanging scaffold. Curious turning scaffolds have been tween 1806 and 1812, six steamboats of lengths varying from 78 to 175 feet, and tonnage 120 to 337, prior to the practical working of any steamboat in Europe. Fulton built the first steamboat on the Western rivers, at Pittsburg, in 1811. The Orleans, of 100 tons, was a sternwheeler, took her first freight at Natchez for New Orleans, and plied for three or four years on the river between those points. She made her first trip from Pittsburg to New Orleans in 14 days. The next vessel was the