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es the familiar instance of the burning of the fleet of Marcellus by Archimedes, another instance is cited by the historian Zonaras, who records that Proclus consumed by a similar apparatus the ships of the Scythian leader Vitalian, when he besieged Constantinople in the beginning of the sixth century. It must, however, be mentioned that Malaba, another old chronicler, says that Proclus operated on this occasion by burning sulphur showered upon the ships by machines. Stettala, a canon of Milan, made a parabolic reflector with a focus of 45 feet, at which distance it ignited wood. It is understood to be the first of that form, though Digges in the sixteenth century, Newton and Napier in the seventeenth century, experimented with parabolic mirrors. Villette, an optician of Lyons, constructed three mirrors about 1670. One of them, purchased by the King of France, was 30 inches in diameter and 36 inches focus. The diameter of the focus was about 1 inch. It immediately set fire
ed as a metallic ore. It was ascertained empirically that fusing copper in contact with a certain stone gave it a yellow color, and the result — brass — was highly valued. Aristotle and Strabo refer to this earth, as do also Ambrosius, Bishop of Milan, fourth century; Primasius, Bishop of Adrumetum, in Africa, sixth century; and Isidore, Bishop of Seville, seventh century. These learned prelates mention an addition by which copper acquired a gold color. This was undoubtedly calamine. Albeed for the entrance of the vessel, and restored again to form a dam to preserve the upper level. Movable gates to restrain the water on the higher level and admit the passage of boats were introduced in the navigation of the Tesino and Adda to Milan. Cresy dates the invention of canal-locks to 1188, when Pitentino restored the Mincio to its ancient channel to the Po, from whence it had been diverted by the Romans in the time of Quintus Curtius Hostilius. The canal of Languedoc, which u
l in plan, 139 feet in diameter, and 310 feet in hight. The dome of St. Peter's, at Rome, was built at the close of the sixteenth century, from designs left by Michael Angelo. It is 139 feet in diameter, 330 feet high. The dome of St. Paul's, at London, by Sir Christopher Wren, is not masonry, but a shell inclosing the brick cone which supports the lantern. It is 112 feet in diameter, 215 feet high. Internal Diameter.Internal Hight. Mosque of Achmet, Constantinople92120 Duomo at Milan57254 Hall aux Bles, Paris, by Moulineau200150 St. Isaac's, Petersburg96150 Baths of Caracalla112116 The dome of the Capitol, Washington, is 287 feet 11 inches above the base-line of the east front. The greatest diameter of the dome at the springing is 135 feet 5 inches. The weight of iron in the dome and tholus is 8,009,200 pounds. The rotunda is 95.5 feet in diameter, and its hight from the floor to the top of the canopy is 180.25 feet. The central rotund of the Vienna Expositio
white flintglass, 5. For chemical vessels. Fine sand, 48; potassa, 39; lime, 9; niter, 4. Oxide of tin or cobalt may be added to correct color. For porcelain. Felspar, 27; borax, 18; fine sand, 4; niter, soda, and kaolin, 3; mix, frit, powder, and add calcined borax, 3. For painted stoneware. White felspar, 26; soda, 6; niter, 2; borax, 1; frit. Of the product take 13; red lead, 50; white lead, 40; ground flint, 12. M. Richard, ceramic manufacturer at Saint-Christophe, near Milan, has communicated to the Society of Encouragement, Paris, his process for varnishing pottery, and applied by him to different products exhibited at the Champ de Mars (Group III. Class XVII., Italian Section). The following are the ingredients and their proportion to be fritted: Carbonate of soda, 1.000; boracic acid, from Tuscany, 0.800; kaolin, 0.125; carbonate of line, 0.250; sulphate of lime, 0.250; crystallized felspar, 0.750; quartz from the Tessin, 0.280; fluate of lime, 0.150. Manga
Eristratus in the time of Ptolemy, but their function was not understood. Aselli described them in his De Venis Lacteis, Milan, 1627. This work is remarkable as being the first anatomical work illustrated by colored plates. The arteries and veinss invention soon spread throughout Europe, and Leonardo da Vinci erected six of them at the junction of the two canals of Milan, 1497. The fall was 17 Milan brasso. (Milan brasso = 1.725 English feet. In 1188, Alberto Pitentino converted the MinMilan brasso. (Milan brasso = 1.725 English feet. In 1188, Alberto Pitentino converted the Mincio into a canal and restored it to its ancient course, from whence it had been diverted by the Romans in the time of Quintus Curtius Hostilius. Cresy dates the introduction of locks from the period of the building of this canal. It was a curious Milan brasso = 1.725 English feet. In 1188, Alberto Pitentino converted the Mincio into a canal and restored it to its ancient course, from whence it had been diverted by the Romans in the time of Quintus Curtius Hostilius. Cresy dates the introduction of locks from the period of the building of this canal. It was a curious contrivance called a conch, with a balance-lever and hanging gate, which somehow opened to allow the boats to pass. This was used at Governolo, to dam up the waters of the Mincio on the side of Mantua. It was probably a kind of sluice. See Cresy'
yre. He also contrived a method of representing musical sounds, writing music. Pythagoras added an eighth, completing the octave. The Greeks excelled in the use of the flute, using a variety of instruments of different pitch, but probably played in unison, not in harmony. It is apparently well settled that they did understand counterpoint. The Romans seem to have added nothing to the art. Toward the end of the fourth century, St. Ambrose composed a musical service for the church of Milan. Previous to this time, the Christian service was probably various in different parts of the Empire: in some it doubtless was Oriental and noisy; in lands where the Grecian civilization prevailed, it was copied from the dramatists, and consisted of airs, recitatives, and responses; in other regions again it probably followed the chants as performed at the pagan altars, and among the Christianized Jews it doubtless long followed the Hebrew models. Two tubes, one sliding within the other,
GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilomeeated on his throne. his scepter in one hand and a lyre in the other, on which he appears to be playing, accompanied by several instruments, including the organ. E is from an engraving in the Theorea Musica of Franchinus Gaffurins, printed at Milan, 1492. F, from the Theatrum Instrumentorum of Praetorius, 1620, shows the ancient method of blowing. On each bellows is fixed a wooden shoe: the men who work them hold on to a horizontal bar, and, inserting their feet into a pair of the shoes
roll, volumen, upon which the matter was written. Skins of animals, parchment, fish-skins, and bones have been used, as existing specimens testify. Puricelli mentions a grant by the Italian kings Hugo and Lotharis to the Ambrosian church of Milan written on the skin of a fish. In the history of Mahomet it is recorded that his disciples wrote parts of the Koran on the shoulderblades of sheep, which they strung together. Arab poetry was not unfrequently inscribed on these scapuloe, probted but few copies at once, for 200 or 300 were then esteemed a large edition. Catchwords at the foot of pages were first used at Venice by Vindeline de Spori. They have but lately been abolished. Signatures to sheets were used by Zorat in Milan in 1470. The first press in America was in Mexico. The Manual for adults was printed on it in 1550 by Juan Cromberger, who was probably the first printer in America. The second press was at Lima, in 1586. The press at Cambridge, Massachuset
land40.2 Limerick, Ireland35 Armagh, Ireland36.12 Aberdeen, Scotland28.87 Glasgow, Scotland21.33 Bergen, Norway88.61 Stockholm20.4 Copenhagen18.35 Berlin23.56 Mannheim22.47 Prague14.1 Cracow13.3 Brussels28.06 Paris22.64 Geneva31.07 Milan38.01 Rome30.86 Naples29.64 Marseilles23.4 Lisbon27.1 Coimbra Port118.8 Bordeaux34.00 Algiers36.99 St Petersburg17.3 Simpheropol, Crimea14.83 Kutais (E shore of Black Sea)59.44 Bakou (S of Caspian)13.38 Ekatherinburg, Ural Mts.14.7ondition in 1553. Toll-gates were erected in 1663. In the sixteenth year of the reign of the frivolous Charles II. a turnpike road was established through Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, and Huntingdonshire. The Simplon road from Geneva to Milan, built by Napoleon, cost the French government 17,000,000 livres ($3,250,000). MacAdam says: The measure of substituting pavements for convenient and useful roads is a kind of desperate remedy, to which ignorance has had recourse. The mode
uide to the binder. Catch-words (now generally abolished) were first used at Venice by Vindeline de Spire. The name and residence of the inventor of signatures are doubtful; it appears they were inserted into an edition of Terence, printed at Milan in 1470, by Anthony Zorat. And an edition of Baldi Lectura super Codic, etc., was printed at Venice by John de Colonia and Jo. Manthen de Gherretzem, anno 1474; it is in folio, and the signatures are not introduced till the middle of the book, asteel. After polishing it, it is dipped in diluted sulphuric acid, to give it a pattern. Sword-blades, resembling in appearance the Oriental blades, and equal to them in quality, have been made in Germany, by the process of Prof. Crevilli, of Milan. A long, flat piece of malleable steel, 1 1/2 inches in breadth and 1/8 inch in thickness, is first bound with iron wire, at intervals of 1/3 inch. The iron and steel are then incorporated by welding, and repeated additions (10 to 20) of iro
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