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the country. See Grafton's own account of the incident in his Autobiography. On the resignation of Grafton, Conway, with his accustomed indecision, remained in office, but seized the occasion to escape from the care of America De Guerchy, the French Ambassador at London, to Choiseul, 22 May, 1766. to Chap. XXV.} 1766. May. the Northern Department. There appeared a great and general backwardness Grafton's Autobiography. to embark with Rockingham. Lord North Lord North to Rockingham, 24 May, 1766. had hardly accepted a lucrative post, before he changed his mind and excused himself. Lord Howe would not serve unless under Pitt. Lord Hardwicke's Memorial. Albemarle's Memoirs of Rockingham and his Contemporaries, i. 335. Lord Hardwicke also refused the place left vacant by Grafton; so did his brother, Charles Yorke; and so did Egmont; till at last it fell to the husband of Conway's step-daughter, the liberal, self-confident Duke of Richmond; who added grace and court
Cabinet, wrote a sagacious observer, Durand to Choiseul, 30 July, 1766. Referring not to Chatham's Ministry, but to the modifications which Grafton afterwards made in it by a junction with the Bedfords, Chesterfield called the Cabinet a piece of Mosaic. Burke appropriated the metaphor, and applied it wrongfully; yet in rhetoric so splendid, that every one is inclined to forget historic exactness, and quote his brilliant epigrams. Chatham's Ministry was at first less of a Mosaic than Rockingham's, and very much less of a Mosaic than the Opposition, of which Burke was now to form a part. can hope for the rare privilege of unanimity, it is this, in which Pitt will see none but persons whose imagination he has subjugated, whose premature advancement is due to his choice, whose expectations of permanent fortune rest on him alone. Of the friends of Rockingham, Lord John Cavendish set the example of refusing to serve under Grafton; but he insisted to Conway that acts of civility wou
reached by argument, and travestied the litany in a solemn invocation to the Minister above. Have mercy upon us, he cried, while the Opposition applauded the parody; doom not to perdition the vast public debt, seventy millions of which thou hast employed in rearing a pedestal for thy own statue. Sir Matthew Fetherstonehaugh to Lord Olive, 30 Dec. 1766, in Chat. Corr. III. 145, 146, Note. And the very next day, in the House of Lords, Chatham marked his contempt of the bitter mockery of Rockingham's partisans by saying to the Duke of Richmond, When the people shall condemn me, I shall tremble; but I will set my face against the proudest Connection of this country. I hope, cried Richmond, the Nobility will not be browbeaten by an insolent Minister, and Chatham retorted the charge of insolence. Walpole, II. 411, Chat. Correspondence, III. 138; Duke of Bedford's Journal, for 10 Dec. 1766. But it was the last time during his Ministry that he appeared in the House of Lords. His
ght for Chap. Xxviii} 1767. Feb. the Ministry. But not one of those who planned this impolitic act, derived from it any advantage. The good sense of the country condemned it; the city dreaded the wound given to public credit; Grenville, who joyfully accepted the congratulations of the country gentlemen, deceived himself in expecting a junction with Rockingham, and had in the King an inflexible enemy. Compare Grenville's Diary in the Grenville Papers, IV. 212, with Sir Geo. Saville to Rockingham in Albemarle's Rockingham, II. 41. The ancient whig Connection, which had ruled England so long and still claimed to represent the party of Liberty, by creating an apparent excuse for Townshend's system of American taxes, only doomed itself more surely to a fruitless opposition. For so small a benefit, as a reduction on but one year's rental of nine farthings in the pound, and for a barren parliamentary triumph, it compromised its principles, and risked a continent. This was the first
rerogative, he announced to Grafton Grafton to Rockingham, 15 July, 1767; Rockingham to Grafton, 16 July, 1t variance among themselves Compare Bedford to Rockingham, 16 July, 1767, in Bedford's Corr. III. 373. Grirs. Temple to Rigby, 17 July, 1767. Bedford to Rockingham, 17 July, 1767, &c. &c. Grenville to Rigby, 16 Jud Chancellor Hardwicke, III. 459. would not admit Rockingham to an audience; now that he had failed, he Chapy answer he could make was— Nothing. Once more Rockingham was urged to join with the friends of Chatham; nd others were anxious and uneasy. E. Burke to Rockingham, 18 August, 1767. A leader of a party had never King was never in better spirits. E. Burke to Rockingham, 1 August, 1767. Grafton, too, obtained the cre; and, after the rejection of all his offers to Rockingham, people saw him at the head of the Treasury withot engage more of the venal boroughs. Burke to Rockingham, 13 August, 1767. In the great contest with oppre
Chapter 34: Does Massachusetts rescind?—Hillsborough's Colonial Administration continued. June—July, 1768. some weeks would elapse before these orders Chap. XXXIV.} 1768. June. would become known in the Colony. Meantime, the Commissioners of the Customs assumed more and more airs of haughtiness, with the strangest superciliousness Governor Wentworth of New Hampshire to the Marquis of Rockingham, November 13, 1768; in Albemarle's Rockingham, ii. 88. More obstructions have arisen to the service in this country, from the servants of Government, than from any other cause. At first the strangest superciliousness and publicly expressed hatred to the country, excited disrespect and apprehensions against them. Compare Mr. John Temple to Mr. Grenville, Boston, New England, November 7, 1768, in Grenville Papers, IV. 396, 397. I am perfectly of opinion with General Gage, that the King's cause has been more hurt in this country by some of his own servants, than by all the worl
the Tower, yet so as to give no indication that they were sent from Government. While British Ministers were enjoying the thought of baffling France, they had the vexation to find Paoli himself obliged to retire by way of Leghorn to England. But their notorious interference was treasured up in memory as a precedent. When, on the twenty-seventh of July, the Cabinet definitively agreed on the measures to be pursued towards America, it sought to unite all England by resting its policy on Rockingham's Declaratory Act, and to divide America by proceeding severely only against Boston. For Virginia, it was most properly resolved that Chap XXXV.} 1768. July. the office of its Governor should no longer remain a sinecure, as it had been for three quarters of a century; and Amherst, Hillsborough to Amberst, 27 July, 1768; Junius, II. 216. Frances to Choiseul, 5 August, 1768. who would not go out to reside there, was in consequence displaced, and ultimately indemnified. In selectin
ons, and recounting the various steps in America to prevent the consumption of British manufactures, and to promote their own. We will not consent, replied Lord North, to go into the question, on account of the combinations in America. To do so would be to furnish a fresh instance of haste, impatience, levity, and fickleness. I see nothing un- Chap. XL.} 1769. April. commercial, in making the Americans pay a duty upon tea. No one would defend the Act, yet few urged its repeal. The Rockingham party were willing that it should remain as a source of embarrassment to the Ministers. Conway next proposed as a middle course, to agree to take it into consideration the next session. I approve the middle course, said Beckford. I was the first man who said you ought not tax America for the purpose of revenue. The duty upon tea, with a great army to collect it, has produced in the Southern part of America, only two hundred and ninety-four pounds, fourteen shillings; in the Northern pa
, 1770, 1770. Jan. would decide, whether the British Empire was to escape dismemberment. Chatham recommended to the more liberal aristocracy Fitzwilliam to Rockingham, 1769; in Albemarle, II. 142. Chatham to Rockingham, Id. 193. that junction with the people, which, after sixty years, achieved the Reform of the British ConstRockingham, Id. 193. that junction with the people, which, after sixty years, achieved the Reform of the British Constitution; but in that day it was opposed by the passionate impulses of Burke, Burke in Albemarle, II. 195. and the inherent reluctance of the high-born. The debate on the ninth turned on the capacity and rights of the people, and involved the complaints of America and of Ireland, not less than the discontent of England at the opposed him by a vote of more than two to one, the actual Ministry was shattered; and Chatham, feeble and emaciated as he was, sprang forward with the party of Rockingham, to beat down the tottering system, and raise on its ruins a Government more friendly to liberty. But the King was the best politician among them all. Dismis
e approved. Report of the speech of the Counsel of the Province, in a letter from Edmund Burke, the Agent of the Colony of New-York to the Committee of Correspondence of the New-York Assembly. He spoke well, and was seconded by Lee. Burke to Rockingham, 1 or 2 of Feb. 1774; in Corr. i. 453. The question as presented by Dunning, was already decided in favor of the Petitioners; it was the universal opinion that Hutchinson ought to be superseded. Wedderburn changed the issue, as if Frankliuesday the first of February, the Earl of Feb. Buckinghamshire, who had attended the Privy Council, went to the House of Lords, to put the Ministry in mind that he was to be bought by private contract. The phrase is Edmund Burke's, Burke to Rockingham, Tuesday night, February 2, 1774; Burke's Corr. i. 452. [Tuesday was Feb. 1.] Moving for the Boston Correspondence, he said, The question is no longer about the liberty of North America, but whether we are to be free or slaves to our Colonies