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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 20 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 18 0 Browse Search
Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation 4 0 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, A book of American explorers 4 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the Colonization of the United States, Vol. 1, 17th edition. 4 0 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 2 0 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 30. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 2 0 Browse Search
The writings of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume 4. (ed. John Greenleaf Whittier) 2 0 Browse Search
The writings of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume 6. (ed. John Greenleaf Whittier) 2 0 Browse Search
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Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation, Commission given by sir Rowland Hayward knight, and George Barne, Aldermen and governours of the company of English Merchants, for discovery of new trades, unto Arthur Pet, and Charles Jackman, for a voyage by them to be made, for discovery of Cathay, 1580. in forme following. (search)
ame proceed alongst by it, from thence Eastwards, keeping the same alwayes on your starboordside in sight, if you may, and follow the tract of it, whether it incline Southerly or Northerly (as at times it may do both) untill you come to the Countrey of Cathay, or the dominion of that mightie Emperour. And if God prosper your voyage with such good successe, that you may attaine to the same, doe you seeke by all meanes you can to arrive to the Cities Cambalu, and Quinsay, or to the one of them.hich you may very wel make to serve you for two yeres and a halfe, though you finde no other help, you may therefore be the bolder to adventure in proceeding upon your discovery: which if you do, we doubt not, but you shall atchieve the Countrey of Cathay, & deliver to the prince there, one of her Majesties letters, bringing from thence the same princes letters answerable: and so in the yeere of our Lord 1582. returne home with good newes, and glad tidings, not onely unto us the adventurers
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), America, discoverers of. (search)
that the Northmen saw more than the coasts of Labrador and New England--possibly Newfoundland; and the landing-place of Madoc is wholly conjectural. On Oct. 11, 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered one of the Bahama Islands, east of Florida. but not the continent. In the summer of 1498 Sebastian Cabot (commissioned by King Henry VII. of England), who sailed from Bristol in May with two caravels, discovered the North American continent at Labrador. He was seeking a northwest passage to Cathay. and, being barred from the Polar Sea by pack-ice, sailed southward, discovered Labrador, and possibly went along the coast as far as the Carolinas. He discovered and named Newfoundland. and found the treasures of codfishes in the waters near it. On Aug. 1 the same summer Columbus discovered the continent of South America, near the mouth of the Orinoco River. Americus Vespucius, a Florentine, and an agent of the de Medici family of Florence, was in Spain when the great discovery of Colu
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Arctic exploration. (search)
Arctic exploration. During almost four hundred years efforts have been made by European navigators to discover a passage for vessels through the Arctic seas to India. The stories of Marco Polo of the magnificent countries in Eastern Asia and adjacent islands — Cathay and Zipangi, China and Japan--stimulated desires to accomplish such a passage. The Cabots [John Cabot; Sebastian Cabot (q. v.)] went in the direction of the pole, northwestward, at or near the close of the fifteenth century, and penetrated as far north as 67° 30′, or half-way up to (present) Davis Strait. The next explorers were the brothers Cortereal, who made three voyages in that direction, 1500-02. In 1553 Sir Hugh Willoughby set out to find a northwest passage to India, but was driven back from Nova Zembla, and perished on the shore of Lapland. In 1576-78 Martin Frobisher made three voyages to find a northwest passage into the Pacific Ocean, and discovered the entrance to Hudson Bay. Between 1585 and 1587
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cathay, (search)
Cathay, The old name of China, so called by the Venetian traveller Marco Polo, who, in the employ of the Khan of Tartary, visited it early in the thirteenth century. It was the land Columbus expected to find by sailing westward from Spain.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Columbus, Christopher 1435-1536 (search)
uraging answer, and sent him a map constructed partly from Ptolemy's and partly from descriptions of Farther India by Marco Polo, a Venetian traveller who told of Cathay (China) and Zipango (Japan) in the twelfth century. In 1477, Columbus sailed northwest from Portugal beyond Iceland to lat. 73°, when pack-ice turned him back; apaniola or Santo Domingo, and he sailed to the western verge of the Gulf of Mexico in search of a passage through what he always believed to be Zipango (Japan) to Cathay, or China. After great sufferings, he returned to Spain in November, 1504, old and infirm, to find the good Queen dead, and to experience the bitterness of neglrth of the equinoctial line (but the handwriting is here illegible). He says that he must attempt to reach the Gran Can, who he thought was here or at the city of Cathay, which belongs to him, and is very grand, as he was informed before leaving Spain. All this land, he adds, is low and beautiful, and the sea deep. Wednesday,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Garfield, James Abram 1831-1881 (search)
s of the Mississippi River, and, crossing it, pushed his discoveries westward over the great plains; but, finding neither the gold nor the South Sea of his dreams, he returned to be buried in the waters of the great river he had discovered. While England was more leisurely exploring the bays and rivers of the Atlantic coast, and searching for gold and peltry, the chevaliers and priests of France were chasing their dreams in the North, searching for a passage to China and the realms of Far Cathay, and telling the mystery of the Cross to the Indian tribes of the far West. Coasting northward, her bold navigators discovered the mouth of the St. Lawrence; and in 1525 Cartier sailed up its broad current to the rocky heights of Quebec, and to the rapids above Montreal, which were afterwards named La Chine, in derision of the belief that the adventurers were about to find China. In 1609 Champlain pushed above the rapids and discovered the beautiful lake that bears his name. In 1615 P
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Verrazzano, Giovanni da 1508- (search)
ly in this occupation that he gained the notice and favor of Francis I. Late in 1523 he started on his voyage across the Atlantic, in the Dauphine, his object being, as he tells us himself in the cosmographical appendix to his letter, to reach Cathay (China) by a westward route. Of this voyage the famous letter here published is the record. It was in March, 1524, that he discovered the American coast, probably not far from the site of Wilmington, in North Carolina. It will be interesting fations, as also the ebb and flow of the sea in all places, were noted in a little book, which may prove serviceable to navigators; they are communicated to your Majesty in the hope of promoting science. My intention in this voyage was to reach Cathay, on the extreme coast of Asia, expecting, however, to find in the newly discovered land some such an obstacle, as they have proved to be, yet I did not doubt that I should penetrate by some passage to the eastern ocean. It was the opinion of the
ther maritime or dependent upon some great river which was the artery of the empire. Witness the Mediterranean, the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris; these waters washed all the lands of historic interest from Noah to Constantine. We must except far Cathay, — China. Stowe dates the making of coaches in England from 1555, and credits Walter Rippin with the making of the same. The canopies of these coaches were supported by pillars on the bodies, surrounded by curtains of cloth or leather, which the throstles as well as by the mules. Cotton Pa′per. We are indebted for cotton paper to the Arabians, and it is surmised that they learned it of nations still east of them. The use of cotton for this purpose was probably derived from far Cathay (China), whence we received gunpowder, porcelain, the mariner's compass, and the art of glazing earthenware. The first use of cotton paper in Europe was among the Saracens in Spain, and cannot be traced back beyond the tenth century. In Europ
the [eastward] shadow, as he watched the sun gradually decline in the western sky. It is useless, then, to expect to give a date for the invention of the sun-dial. It was not an invention, but an observation. It is evident that the dial having a gnomon which makes with the horizontal plane an angle equal to the latitude of the place is the invention of the Asiatics. It is bootless to inquire whether it originated on the southern slope of the great backbone of the continent, or in far Cathay, by the Yellow Sea. Herodotus, whose fame grows clearer and brighter as years wax and wane, states that the Greeks received the sun-dial from the Chaldeans (see that of Berosus, infra). We may fairly judge the character of the ancient dials from those yet remaining in India, which are destitute of modern innovations, such as glass lenses and finely graduated metallic scales. Dr. Hooker, in his Notes in Bengal, Nepaul, etc, gives sketches of the sun-dials in the Observatory of Benares. T
graphy estimated the Chinese coast at the longitude of the Carolinas. So Columbus started west on an uncertain expedition, and, believing Behaim, with whom he had been associated at Lisbon, 1480 – 84, concluded that in reaching land he had found Cathay. He caused the whole crews of his squadron (about eighty sailors) to swear that they believed he might go from Antilia (Cuba) to Spain by land, keeping west. Having letters from the Catholic monarchs to the Great Mogul Khan in Cathay, he sent oCathay, he sent on shore a baptized Jew who was acquainted with some of the Oriental languages, but his messenger failed to make connection. Columbus died before the error was discovered; he named the natives indians, and so much of the matter remains to this day. See map; where the globes of Behaim and Schoner are compared with the previous maps of Ptolemy, Strabo, Hecataeus, and others. Then to Moxon's, and bought there a payre of globes; cost me £ 3 10s. — Pepys, 1663. In the history of globe-making, t
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