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it will ever prove a useful or economical one. The above cut is copied from Hero's Spiritalia, edited by Woodcroft, of London. See steamengine. Ely's Aeolipile, 1867, is adapted for rotating a toy. It is poised with its boiler on a central veter Abbey33991:3. 14th centuryMilan Cathedral551651:3. 17th centurySt. Peter's Rome841471:1.75 17th centurySt. Paul's, London41821:2. For examples of arches used in bridge construction, see bridge. The term arch in its widest significationoof, or viaduct. One form of the arched beam is exemplified by the roof of the dining-room of the Charterhouse School, London (Fig. 312). This much-perverted charity is well housed, and the roof of the refectory is formed with circular ribs in foudvance. Hancock's square-hole auger. Hancock's Square-hole Borer (English) was in operation about the same time in London, and operated in a substantially similar manner. a is a strong frame, fastened by screws b to the bench c; d is an octag
adrian, the successor of Trajan, to prevent the incursions of the barbarians. Rome was then beginning to assume the defensive. Among the other Roman bridges which yet remain, whole or in part, to testify to the skill of the engineers and extort our admiration, are those of Merida and Alcantara, in Spain. The former is over the Guadiana, 3,900 feet long, and has 64 arches. The latter is over the Tagus, 670 Spanish feet long, 6 arches; road-bed 205 feet above the river. The bridges of London are celebrated in history, especially that portion of history in which we who speak English are most interested. A wooden bridge existed over the Thames in A. D. 978. One was built of wood in 1014; one by Peter of Colechurch, 1176-1200, with houses on each side connected by arches of timber which crossed the street. This was burned in July, 1212, and 3,000 persons perished. The buildings being on fire at the Surry end, a great crowd rushed to see the fire, and the wind blew the burning sh
bing, the locks are fastened to two toothed cylinders which revolve in apposition to each other, and are heated by steam within. The teeth of one cylinder comb the fibers on the other one. Comb-ma-chine′. Bundy's English patent, October, 1797, is the first comb-making machine on record. It consisted of a number of circular saws on a mandrel. The comb-blank is mounted on a carriage and advanced by a screw. A mode of making combs with economy of material was invented by Ricketts, London, some years since, and has become common. A slip, a little wider than a comb, is placed in a machine which has a descending cutter of peculiar conformation adapted to cut through the tortoise-shell or horn by a series of tapering cuts which form the outlines of the teeth of a pair of combs, as in the figure (w), the teeth of one comb occupying the interdental spaces of the other. Kelly's Machine for making parted combs has a bed-plate p which is secured by screws to a bench; from the bed
uently made by the same artist, the number of holes was but three, and the variation of the pressure on the bellows was from one ounce for the lowest to fifty-six pounds for the highest. About 1820 two automaton flute-players were exhibited in London. They played eighteen duets. 2. (Architecture.) a. A long vertical groove in the shaft of a column. It is usually circular in section, but, when angular, the shaft is called a canted column. The Doric column has twenty flutes. Theinary disinfectant is chlorine, either in the form of chloride of lime or in the direct evolution of gas from a mixture of salt, manganese, suphuric acid, and water. This was the plan adopted by Faraday in the disinfecting of a penitentiary in London. The space being about 2,000,000 cubic feet, he used 700 pounds of common salt and the same quantity of black oxide of manganese. The mixture was set about in numerous pans throughout the wards and corridors. Three and a half pounds of a mix
-duc′tion-pipe. (Steam-engine.) The pipe which leads the live steam to the cylinder. In-duc′tion-valve. The valve which controls the entry-port for live steam to the cylinder of an engine. In-duc-tom′e-ter. An instrument for ascertaining the force of electrical induction. In-duc-to′ri-um. (Electricity.) Another name for the induction-coil as adapted for the display of the electric spark. The instrument shown was constructed for the Royal Polytechnic Institution of London, and gave a spark 18 inches in length. In Ritchie's instrument, the secondary consists of coils wound up into flat disks the thickness of the wire, and these are piled up against each other upon the primary coil, the separate coils being separated by thin disks of gutta-percha. The current is made to reverse from the center to the circumference and conversely, to and fro, as many times as there are coils upon the core. App's Inductorium. In-fe′ri-or Let′ter. Letters ca
ed under plugger. 5. (Surgical.) A hammer used with a gouge in cutting bones. Malm-bricks. The name given to those bricks, made in the neighborhood of London, in which the clay is pulped, mixed with cream of lime, and incorporated with breeze before molding. Breeze is a casual mixture of cinders, ashes, and fine coal, such as is gathered by the dustmen of London, and forms a part of the combustible material by which the bricks are burnt in the clamp. See brick. Malt-dryer. Malt-dry′er. A device to hasten the drying of malt by artificial heat. Fig. 3033 shows a machine in which the malt is agitated and overturned in an air-tight velf-shining substance, procurable in small quantities at great expenditure of time and labor. In 1680, Godfrey Hanckwitz, at his laboratory in Southampton Street, London, manufactured and sold large quantities of phosphorus for the purpose of striking light. About 1825, the hydrogen-lamp was invented by Dobereiner, a German, an
pping of water from a clepsydra. There is a reference also to a similar instrument in the third century. A planetarium is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesco Casa, as seen by the former at Florence in the fifteenth century. The inventor was one Lorenzo of Florence, and the apparatus was constructed to illustrate the Ptolemaic theory of the heavens. The various parts were moved by trains of cog-wheels. Life of A. Politiano, published by Cadell and Davis, London, about 1800. A planetary clock was made by Finee, 1553, and a planetarium by De Rheita in 1650. Or′se-dew. Leaf metal of bronze. Dutch metal. Or′tho-graph. A drawing representing a structure in elevation, external or internal. The internal orthograph is usually termed a vertical section or sciagraph. The ground plan is the ichnograph. The view of the whole building, the scenograph. Or-tho-scop′ic lens. (Optics.) An arrangement of two achromatic compound lenses
aight line by the light of the public lamps. 700 years after this, London and Paris were unpaved and had no public lamps. The capital of Fhensive dissertation on this subject, see Perpetuum Mobile, Dircks, London, 1861. The Marquis of Worcester, in his Century of inventions, rs. A, Bartolomineo Cristofori of Florence, 1711. B, Mason, London, 1755. C, single action. The hammer-harpsichord, so called fromraised by it when pressed by the key. (See Rimbault's Piano-forte, London, 1860.) A long description by Scipione Maffei and a cut were publis Harlem River where the pipe lies is 40 feet. The water-mains of London are or were united by cylindrical, turned joints, a little whiting ee the following works: Marryat's History of pottery and porcelain, London, 1857; Burty's Chefs-d'oeuvre of the Industrial Arts, Appleton & Co., 1869; Life of Josiah Wedgwood, London, 1865. The earthenware of the Greeks and Romans was unglazed, but they covered their pottery with