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Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The removal of McClellan. (search)
for concentrating the army near Warrenton. This movement in effect placed the Army of the Potomac, with a force double that of the Army of Northern Virginia, The Official Records show that at this time McClellan's effective force was about 145,000, Lee's about 72,000. Longstreet and Jackson each had about 32,000.--R. B. I. between the two halves of that army, farther separated by the Blue Ridge; for Lee, with Longstreet's corps, had kept pace with McClellan's movement and advanced to Culpeper, and Jackson was still in the Valley of Virginia, distant several days' march behind Thornton's Gap, with D. H. Hill holding the western entrance to the gap against Pleasonton, who was on the east, observing its debouch. On that very day, the 5th of November, 1862, President Lincoln, with his own hand, wrote the following order: It is virtually certain that General McClellan never saw this order, which, in the form as written by the President, was never promulgated. General Hunter wa
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The pontoniers at Fredericksburg. (search)
from all blame.--editors. We took up two bridges, each 1100 feet long, loaded and moved them by canal and land transportation to Washington, where we received 500 unbroken mules. We then fitted up two trains, moved through the mud to Occoquan, where we divided the trains, part going by water and part by land to Aquia Creek, where we again reloaded the entire equipment, and arrived at the Lacy house but six days behind Longstreet's advance, which had made a forced march from the vicinity of Culpeper to reach the heights in rear of Fredericksburg. These being the facts, it can hardly be said, with justice, that the engineers were slow in their movements. The idea of crossing immediately in front of the town seemed to have passed, temporarily at least, from General Burnside's mind, and demonstrations on an extensive scale were made to the right and left. Twice I crossed the river below the town and examined the country for some distance inland, it being rather difficult to find gr
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The successes and failures of Chancellorsville. (search)
stationed at United States Ford to facilitate the crossing. The Cavalry Corps, with the exception of one small brigade of three regiments and a battery of horse artillery, which was left under my command with the army, was ordered under the command of General Stoneman to make a raid in rear of Lee's army, and destroy his railroads and his communications with Richmond. This corps did great service by drawing off General Lee's cavalry, under General J. E. B. Stuart, to Brandy Station and Culpeper, thus depriving General Lee of their services; for General Hooker moved the three corps with him with such celerity that they passed between Stuart and Lee's army, and Stuart could not get through to communicate to Lee what was going on. It will be seen later on what a loss this was to Lee, and what a great advantage it was to the Army of the Potomac.--A. P. Parade at Falmouth of the 110th Pennsylvania Volunteers. From a photograph. This regiment (of Whipple's division, Third Corps) w
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Hooker's appointment and removal. (search)
able of the views of the Government concerning this army. Under instructions from the major-general commanding the army, dated January 31st, I am instructed to keep in view always the importance of covering Washington and Harper's Ferry, either directly or by so operating as to be able to punish any force of the enemy sent against them. In the event the enemy should move, as I almost anticipate he will, the head of his column will probably be headed toward the Potomac, via Gordonsville or Culpeper, while the rear will rest on Fredericksburg. After giving the subject my best reflection, I am of opinion that it is my duty to pitch into his rear, although in so doing the head of his column may reach Warrenton before I can return. Will it be within the spirit of my instructions to do so? In view of these contemplated movements of the enemy, I cannot too forcibly impress upon the mind of His Excellency, the President, the necessity of having one commander for all of the troops whose op
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The first day at Gettysburg. (search)
Ewell's corps had joined Stuart's cavalry at Culpeper. A. P. Hill's corps was left in observation dered Pleasonton to beat up Stuart's camps at Culpeper, and get information as to the enemy's positihannock Station, and runs thence ten miles to Culpeper. [See map, p. 55.] About midway is Brandy Strown out to Stevensburg, seven miles east of Culpeper, to watch the Fredericksburg road. Then the whole force was to move on Culpeper. On the 8th, General Lee, having sent Jenkins's brigade as Ewel of the approach of Confederate infantry from Culpeper. Pleasonton, who had captured some importantne 5th he reported that in case Lee moved via Culpeper toward the Potomac with his main body, leavinPleasonton that a large infantry force was at Culpeper, he extended his right up the Rappahannock, ain advance of it. On the 15th Longstreet left Culpeper, keeping east of the Blue Ridge and so coverimy should as soon as possible be organized at Culpeper, as the well-known anxiety of the Northern Go
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 4.42 (search)
be under no such necessity; would have no great difficulty in obtaining supplies, and — disregarding the clamor from Washington — could play a waiting game, which it would be impossible for Lee to maintain in the open country. He could not advance on Baltimore or Washington with Meade in his rear, nor could his army subsist itself in a hostile region which would soon swarm with additional enemies. His communications could be cut off, for his recommendation to assemble even a small army at Culpeper to cover them and aid him had not been complied with. A battle was a necessity to Lee, and a defeat would be more disastrous to Meade, and less so to himself, at Gettysburg than at any point east of it. With the defiles of the South Mountain range close in his rear, which could be easily held by a small force, a safe retreat through the Cumberland Valley was assured, so that his army, once through these passes, would be practically on the banks of the Potomac, at a point already prepared
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Kershaw's brigade at Gettysburg. (search)
amination of all that has been written of that eventful series of battles will show that this was the cause of all the failures. Every attack was magnificent and successful, but failed in the end for the want of cooperation between corps, divisions, brigades, and, in some instances, regiments of the same brigade. The want of cooperation, or, as the Comte de Paris terms it, the want of coordination, caused the loss of Gettysburg to the Confederates. It will be seen, too, that there was no loss of time on the part of McLaws's division, from the day it left Culpeper to that of its arrival at Gettysburg. If any ensued after that, it was due to circumstances wholly unknown to the writer. Certainly, the loss of time, if any, would not have lost the fight, if there had been perfect cooperation of all the troops. But, except to vindicate the truth, it is vain to inquire into the causes of our failure. The last Confederate gun at Gettysburg-on Longstreet's right, opposite Round Top.