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ety-valve. The lard and other grease tanks used for workingup poor carcasses and the offal of slaughter-houses belong to this class of apparatus. Thousands of carcasses of cattle and sheep too poor for the market are thus worked up yearly in the United States, and the lard-tank is a regular feature in the hog-slaughtering centers, Chicago, Cincinnati, etc., where the entrails and other offal yielding grease are thus treated on a large scale. The tanks have also been introduced into Buenos Ayres and probably into Texas, where beeves are slaughtered for their hides and tallow. The carcasses, after removing a few choice parts, are dumped into the tanks, when steam is applied, resolving them into fat, water holding soluble matters in solution, and mud, the latter containing the earthy and some other particles. Of this class is Wilson's tank for rendering lard and tallow, patented in 1844. The tank is preferably a vertical cylinder, and is calculated for high-pressure steam. It
the water to be congealed. The fluid from the reservoir passes to the congealer, and the vapor exhausted therefrom by the air-pump is conveyed back to the reservoir through a worm. The novelty of this apparatus consists in freezing the water by immediate contact with metallic plates forming a closed chamber. For use on shipboard, the congealer is provided with four outlets terminating in a trap. Late attempts at transportation, on shipboard, of fresh meat in ice, from Australia, Buenos Ayres, and Texas to European and United States ports, have given a fillip to this class of machinery. 2. Radiation. This does not affect the subject from a mechanical point of view, and we therefore dismiss it. Class 3. Liquefaction. Machines and apparatus for icing cream, custard, lemonade, etc., may be classed under this head, and generally operate by means of a frigorific composition of pounded ice and chloride of sodium, in a vessel which surrounds the chamber in which the article
. Professor Arago classed several well-known sites according to the frequency of their storms, from the best information he could obtain. His list begins as follows: — Days of Thunder per Year. 1. Calcutta averages60 2. Patna (India) supposed to average53 3. Rio Janeiro averages50.6 4. Maryland (U. S.) supposed to average41 5. Martinique averages39 6. Abyssinia supposed to average38 7. Guadaloupe averages37 8. Viviers (France) averages24.7 9. Quebec averages23.3 10. Buenos Ayres averages22.5 11. Denainvilliers (France) averages20.6 The lowest average he gives is that of Cairo in Egypt, three days of thunder per annum. That of Paris and most of the European cities is about fifteen days. He estimates the days of thunder at New York to be about the same. Lightning rods, points, and Attachements. Fig. 2954 exhibits some of the numerous variety of rods for which patents have been secured in the United States. a has a series of points formed of spiral
eraging 841 tons each. In 1870, Great Britain carried 6,993,153 tons in 23,165 sailing-vessels, and 1,651,767 tons in 2,426 steamers; in 1873, 5,320,089 tons in 20,832 sailingvessels, and 2,624,431 tons in 3,061 steamers. Refrigerating-steamer (section through the steamer and barge). Fig. 5618 is a transverse section through a steamer whose hold is fitted with racks for holding sides of meat for Transatlantic transportation. Such are proposed to carry the surplus meat of Texas or Buenos Ayres to a European market. The proposition has been many times made, but the instance illustrated is that of the steamer Frigorific, 900 tons, intended for the La Plata and Paris trade. The barge shown alongside is intended for the river Seine transportation between Havre and Paris. Both ship and barge are fitted with the Tellier refrigerating apparatus, in which a low degree of temperature is imparted to an air-blast which passes around large plates cooled by the expanded vapor of methylat
nstone Inlet, India357437 1864Mussendom, Persia, to Bushire, Persia39397 1864Bushire, Persia, to Fao, Persia15419 1864Gwadur, India, to Kurrachee, India246670 1864Otranto, Italy, to Aviano, Turkey50347 1865*Bona, Africa, to Sicily270250 1865Trelleborg to Rugen, Germany5580 1865South Foreland, England, to Cape Grinez, France2530 1866Ireland to Newfoundland1,8962,424 1866Ireland to Newfoundland1,8522,424 1866Lyall's Bay to White's Bay4150 1866Crimea to Circassia40 1866Colonia to Buenos Ayres304 1866England to Hanover22427 1866Cape Ray, Newfoundland, to Aspee Bay, Cape Breton91200 1866Leghorn, Italy, to Corsica65100 1866Persian Gulf160110 1866*Khios to Crete2001,200 1867South Foreland, England, to La Panne, France4728 1867Malta to Alexandria, Egypt9252,000 1867Havana to Key West, Florida12520 1867Key West to Punta Russia, Fla12020 1867Placentia, Newfoundland, to St. Pierre11276 1867St. Pierre to Sydney, Cape Breton188250 1867Arendal, Norway, to Hirtshalts, Denmark6