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the universal glazingtool, for cutting and setting glass. This has a small thin roller pivoted at its lower extremity, which in its passage over the glass separates the particles in a manner similar to the diamond. The spatula at the other end is used for puttying, etc. The diamond is crystallized carbon. Diamonds were first brought to Europe from the mine of Sumbalpoor. The Golconda mines were discovered in 1534. The mines of Brazil in 1728. Those in the Ural in 1829. The great Russian diamond weighs 193 carats; cost, £ 104,166 13 s. 4 d. in 1772. The Pitt diamond weighed 136 carats; sold to the king of France for £ 125,000, in 1720. The Koh-i-noor was found in 1550. It belonged in turn to Shah Jehan, AurungZebe, Nadir Shah, the Afghans, Runjeet-Singh, and Queen Victoria, 1850. It originally weighed 800 carats, was cut down to 289 carats by an unskilful Italian, and then to 102 1/4 carats to perfect its shape. See diamond. Pliny speaks of adamant as the hardest o
pulp, so that they do not pass to the moving wire-plane on which the paper is formed. See paper-machine. Knot′ting and Stop′ping. 1. (Painting.) A process preliminary to painting, consisting of painting over the knots of wood with red-lead, and the stopping of nail-holes, cracks, and faults with whitelead. A silver leaf is sometimes laid over the knots in superior work. 2. (Cloth-making.) Removing weft knots and others from cloth by means of tweezers. Knout. The Russian whip for criminals and other offenders. It has a handle 2 feet long, and a thong 4 feet long terminating in a brass ring. To the latter is attached the tail, 2 feet long, and running from 2 inches wide at the ring to a point. This is soaked in milk and dried to harden it. The tail is changed every sixth stroke. Knubs. The offal or waste silk in winding off from the cocoon. Knuck′le. 1. (Mechanics.) The joint-pieces of a hinge through which the pintle passes. Knuckle-jo<
seats for the waiters or employes. d d, close compartments, with seats for four persons. e e, compartments, with seats for five persons f f, compartments with seats for six persons. g, exterior platforms. h, smoking compartment, four seats. i, water-cooler. k, wash-stand. l l, stoves. m m, wood and coal boxes. n, special heating apparatus. o, saloon, with five pivoted arm-chairs. p, urinals. q, kitchen. r, water-closet. Plate XLV. shows a modern Russian saloon-car, convertible into a sleeping-car. It presents an example of the best which has been done in Europe in the way of adapting railway-cars to the comfort and convenience of passengers. The car shown is about 40 feet long and 10 wide, outside measurement, to run on a road of 5-feet gage. The large compartment has seats for 12 passengers, the two smaller for 6 each. The windows are few and small, owing to the rigor of the Russian climate, which renders the heating of a car with man
er dozen. Of Russian and Siberian furs were offered 2,000,000 squirrels of all sorts, 160,000 ermine, 30,000 kolinsky, and 8,000 Siberian sables. Of the productions of North America, about 1,800 sea- otters were quickly bought up by several Russian merchants. About 80,000 beavers, 40,000 of which were reserved for the demand in England. There were also 3,000 Virginian polecats, 6,000 bear-skins, 220,000 raccoon-skins, 950,000 skunks, 800 silver foxes, 3,500 cross foxes, 45,000 red foxes,hich comes up through the table e. The blast-pipe can be fixed at different hights, and is supplied with jets of different sizes, to suit the regulated supply of spirit and the hight of the exposed portion of the wick. Spirit-lamps. The Russian spirit-lamp (B C) consists of an exterior cylinder a, containing a shorter interior annular cylinder b, having a bottom c, through which passes the pipe d, which constitutes the only communication between the interiors of the two cylinders. The
a lady in the hearing of the author, Sponges, madam; I believe they grow on trees. The annals of China place the use of the leaf at a very remote date. It was introduced into Japan in the ninth century A. D., but was not brought to Europe till some seven centuries later. It was about the middle of the seventeenth century (1664) that the East India Company presented to the queen of England a package of two pounds of tea, then valued at forty shillings a pound. About the same time some Russian ambassadors returned to Moscow, bringing some carefully packed green tea, which was esteemed a great delicacy. The overland tea is still the best. An advertisement in the Mercurius Politicus, September 30, 1658, is as follows:— That excellent and by all physitians approved China drink, called by Chineans Tcha, by other nations tay, alias tee, is sold at the Sultana Head Coffee-house, London. I did send for a cup of tee, a China drink, of which I had never drunk before. — Pepys,