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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Augusta, (search)
Augusta, City and county-seat of Richmond county, Ga.; on the Savannah River at the head of steamboat navigation; 120 miles northwest of Savannah. It is one of the largest and most progressive manufacturing cities in the South. It was founded by English settlers under Oglethorpe, and received the name of an English princess. In 1817 it was incorporated a city, and was for many years the most important inland place in the State. The population in 1890 was 33,300; in 1900, 39,441. When Cornwallis proceeded to subjugate South Carolina, he sent Lieutenant-Colonel Brown, a Tory leader, to hold Augusta. Over this garrison Pickens and Clarke had kept watch, and when, on May 20, 1781, they were joined by Lee and his legion, they proceeded to invest the fort there. They took Fort Galphin, 12 miles below, on the 21st, and then an officer was sent to demand the surrender of Augusta. Lieutenant-Colonel Brown was one of the most cruel of the Tories in that region, and the partisans
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Brier Creek, battle of. (search)
n 1779. The latter fled when Ashe appeared on the opposite side of the river, and pushed towards the sea, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell. Ashe crossed and pursued as far as Brier Creek, 40 miles below Augusta, on the Georgia side of the Savannah River, where he encamped. He was surprised (March 3) and utterly defeated by General Prevost, who was marching up from Savannah to support Campbell. Ashe lost almost his entire army by death, captivity, and dispersion. Some were killed, others pe Georgia side of the Savannah River, where he encamped. He was surprised (March 3) and utterly defeated by General Prevost, who was marching up from Savannah to support Campbell. Ashe lost almost his entire army by death, captivity, and dispersion. Some were killed, others perished in the morasses, and many were drowned in attempting to pass the Savannah River. This blow deprived Lincoln of about one-fourth of his army and led to the temporary re-establishment of royal authority in Georgia.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Canals. (search)
ship-canal, through which a war-ship can safely speed. Canals in the United States. name.Cost.Completed.LengthLOCATION. in miles. Albemarle and Chesapeake$1,641,363186044Norfolk, Va., to Currituck Sound, N. C. Augusta1,500,00018479Savannah River, Ga., to Augusta, Ga. Black River3,581,954184935Rome, N. Y., to Lyons Falls, N. Y. Cayuga and Seneca 2,232,632183925Montezuma, N. Y., to Cayuga and Seneca Lakes, N. Y. Champlain 4,044,000182281Whitehall, N. Y., to Waterford. N. Y. Chesapeais 6,000,0001836103Easton, Pa., to Jersey City, N. J. Muscle Shoals and Elk River Shoals.3,156,919188916Big Muscle Shoals, Tenn., to Elk River Shoals, Tenn. Newbern and Beaufort3Clubfoot Creek to Harlow Creek, N C. Ogeechee 407,818184016Savannah River, Ga., to Ogeechee River, Ga. Ohio 4,695,2041835317Cleveland, O., to Portsmouth, O. Oswego5,239,526182838Oswego, N. Y., to Syracuse, N. Y. Pennsylvania7,731,7501839193Columbia, Northumberland, W1ilkesbarre, Huntingdon, Pa. Portage Lake and L
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cherokee Indians, (search)
demanded the surrender of the murderers of the English. He found the Cherokees ready for war, and was glad to make the insubordination of his soldiers and the prevalence of smallpox among them an excuse for leaving the country. He accepted twenty-two Indian hostages as security for peace and the future delivery of the murderers, and retired in haste and confusion (June, 1760). These hostages, which included several chiefs and warriors, were placed in Fort St. George, at the head of the Savannah River. The Cherokees attempted their rescue as soon as Littleton and his army had gone. A soldier was wounded, when his companions, in fiery anger, put all the hostages to death. The Cherokee nation was aroused by the outrage. They beleaguered the fort, and war-parties scourged the frontiers. The Assembly of South Carolina voted 1,000 men and offered £ 25 for every Indian scalp. North Carolina voted a similar provision, and authorized the holding of Indian captives as slaves. General
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), De Soto, Fernando, 1496- (search)
elics, and sacramental bread and wine, wherewith to make Christians of the captured pagans. At the very outset the expedition met with determined opposition from the dusky inhabitants, but De Soto pressed forward towards the interior of the fancied land of gold. He wintered east of the Flint River, near Tallahassee, on the borders of Georgia, and in March, 1540, broke up his encampment and marched northward, having been told that gold would be found in that direction. He reached the Savannah River, at Silver Bluff. On the opposite side of the stream, in (present) Barnwell county, lived an Indian queen, young, beautiful, and a maiden, who ruled over a large extent of country. In a richly wrought canoe, filled with shawls and skins and other things for presents, the dusky cacica glided across the river, and with kind words welcomed the Spaniards and offered them her services. Presents were exchanged. A magnificent string of pearls was hung upon her neck. This she drew over her
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Federal Union, the John Fiske (search)
tbreak of the great war which drove the French from America, a general Congress of the colonies was held at Albany, and a comprehensive scheme of union was proposed by Benjamin Franklin, but nothing came of the project at that time. The commercial rivalry between the colonies, and their disputes over boundary-lines, were then quite like the similar phenomena with which Europe had so long been familiar. In 1756 Georgia and South Carolina actually came to blows over the navigation of the Savannah River. The idea that the thirteen colonies could ever overcome their mutual jealousies so far as to unite in a single political body was received at that time in England with a derision like that which a proposal for a permanent federation of European states would excite in many minds today. It was confidently predicted that if the common allegiance to the British crown were once withdrawn, the colonies would forthwith proceed to destroy themselves with internecine war. In fact, however, it
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Georgia, (search)
surrendered their charter to the crown, the whole country southward of the Savannah River to the vicinity of St. Augustine was a wilderness, peopled by native tribes a large portion of the emigrants on Port Royal Island, he proceeded to the Savannah River with the remainder, and upon Yamacraw Bluff (the site of Savannah) he laid eneral Assembly was established in 1755, and in 1763 all the lands between the Savannah and St. Mary rivers were, by royal proclamation, annexed to Georgia. The colossion convention met. Fort Pulaski, on Cockspur Island, at the mouth of the Savannah River, and Fort Jackson, near the city of Savannah, were seized on Jan. 3, 1861. and with ease took possession of the Big Tybee Island, at the mouth of the Savannah River, from which Fort Pulaski, which was within easy mortar distance, might be ar the National authority was supreme from Warsaw Sound, below the mouth of the Savannah, to the North Edisto River, below Charleston. Every fort on the islands of th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Oglethorpe, James Edward 1698-1785 (search)
on an expedition among the islands off the coast of Georgia, and on St. Simon's he founded Frederica and built a fort. At Darien, where a few Scotch people had planted a settlement, he traced out a fortification. Then he went to Cumberland Island, and there marked out a fort that would command the mouth of the St. Mary's River. On a small island at the entrance of the St. John's River he planned a small military work, which he named Fort George. He also founded Augusta, far up the Savannah River, and built a stockade as a defence against hostile Indians. These hostile preparations caused the Spaniards at St. Augustine to threaten war. Creek tribes offered their aid to Oglethorpe, and the Spaniards made a treaty of peace with the English. It was disapproved in Spain, and Oglethorpe was notified that a commissioner from Cuba would meet him at Frederica. They met. The Spaniard demanded the evacuation of all Georgia and a portion of South Carolina by the English, claiming the t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Peacock, the (search)
f the Peacock's men were wounded; and so little was she injured that an hour after the battle she was in perfect fighting order. The Épervier sold for $55,000, and on board of her was found $118,000 in specie. She was such a valuable prize that Warrington determined to take her into Savannah himself. On the way, when abreast of Amelia Island, on the coast of Florida, the Épervier, in charge of Lieut. John B. Nicholson, came near being captured by two English frigates. She entered the Savannah River in safety on May 1, 1814. the Peacock reached the same port on May 4. This capture produced much exultation. Congress thanked Warrington in the name of the nation, and gave him a gold medal. In another cruise to the shores of Portugal soon afterwards, the Peacock captured fourteen vessels, and returned to New York at the end of October. In 1815, after parting with Biddle, Captain Warrington pursued his cruise in the Peacock, and on June 30, when off Anjer, in the Strait of Sunda,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pulaski, Fort, capture of (search)
Pulaski, Fort, capture of At the close of 1861 the National authority was supreme along the Atlantic coast from Wassaw Sound, below the Savannah River, to the North Edisto, well up towards Charleston. Gen. T. W. Sherman directed his chief engineer, Gen. Q. A. Gillmore, to reconnoitre Fort Pulaski and report upon the feasibiboats might get in the rear of the fort. It was found, and land troops under General Viele went through it to reconnoitre. Another expedition went up to the Savannah River by way of Wassaw Sound, and the gunboats had a skirmish with Tatnall's Mosquito fleet (see Port Royal). Soon afterwards the Nationals erected batteries that effectually closed the Savannah River in the rear of Pulaski, and at the close of February, 1862, it was absolutely blockaded. General Gillmore planted siege guns on Big Tybee that commanded the fort; and on April 10, 1862, after General Hunter (who had succeeded General Sherman) had demanded its surrender, and it had been refused
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