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ve—General Johnston thought—either up the Tennessee River, against Fort Henry, or up the Cumberlanby the destruction of the bridge over the Tennessee River, should Fort Henry fall into the hands ofatter city, and force us back against the Tennessee River (then open to the Federal gunboats), with that part of the State lying between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi. But as the possesensive movement in that direction, by the Tennessee River. Bowling Green, Ky., February 12thHenry, the enemy having possession of the Tennessee River, which is navigable for their gunboats anhe fortune of war shall have restored the Tennessee River to our possession, or combined the movemeer to act immediately against him. The Tennessee River was next in importance to the Mississippimphis and Louisville Railroad crosses the Tennessee River. Under the circumstances, to prevent tad even reached Nashville before evening. The Tennessee and Cumberland were lost. The whole of mi[12 more...]<
he passage of any gunboats or transports up the Tennessee River, from the direction of Fort Henry, extending itportant defences, against any movement from the Tennessee River, the cavalry to be thrown out well in advance. a still more dreaded movement by ascending the Tennessee River to Hamburg or Eastport, seizing the Memphis andct a landing at any point along the bend of the Tennessee River, between Coffee Landing and Eastport. General befallen our arms on the Kentucky border. The Tennessee River is in possession of the enemy since the capture each other. With the enemy in command of the Tennessee River, the position at Columbus is so endangered fromarch on Paducah, seize and close the mouths of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers; aided by gun-boats, I would21st, 1862. My dear General,—By the fall of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, the forces under General Pohousand men, take Cairo, Paducah, the mouth of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, and, most probably, be able
tected by a line of cavalry pickets thrown well out in advance, from Hickman, on the Mississippi, to Paris, near the Tennessee River. Mounted parties, supplied with light artillery, patrolled the west bank of the latter stream, and kept General Beastile operations in the valley. Convinced that there was early danger to be apprehended from the direction of the Tennessee River, which might result in completely isolating General Johnston's forces, General Beauregard, who now had the assurance assembled in the quarter designated, ready to meet the enemy as soon as he should venture upon the west bank of the Tennessee River, and before he could be fully prepared for our attack. Hitherto, in order to avoid the burden of the irksome detaing for the reason that General Beauregard's scouts reported large forces of the enemy moving, in transports, up the Tennessee River, with the probability of an early landing, at any moment. He, therefore, overlooking the discourtesy shown and the
ir brass candlesticks and andirons. By the 8th of March, the busy preparations of the enemy at Fort Henry, up the Tennessee River, indicated an early offensive movement, to meet which the greatest activity on our part was necessary. On the 13th, supplied with munitions for offensive operations. In fact, General Johnston, regarding Corinth as too close to the Tennessee River, as a point of concentration on our side, had telegraphed General Beauregard, recommending the south bank of the Hat of a true general—noting the timidity of the Federal forces in their attempts at incursions on the western bank of the Tennessee, and their disjointed manner of disembarking—he knew that the nearer he was to his opponents the better it would be for assigned, on the 11th, to the command in chief—to unite his forces with those of General Grant, at Savannah, on the Tennessee River. This point of concentration was afterwards changed to Pittsburg Landing, twelve miles higher up, on the opposite s<
nd pushes them forward. battle still raging. capture of General Prentiss and of his command. our troops reach the Tennessee river. Colonel Webster's batteries. arrival of Ammen's brigade, Nelson's division, of Buell's army. its inspiriting effn rear of this line, and between Sherman and Prentiss, lay McClernand's division; and two miles in rear, towards the Tennessee River, C. F. Smith's division, now under General W. H. L. Wallace; while on Wallace's left was Hurlbut's division, on the ops of the second and third, or reserve lines. With a general direction from northwest to southeast, oblique to the Tennessee River, and its right thrown back, the order of the Federal forces was, from right to left, as follows: Sherman's remainingdes, was occupying the front line, being on the crest of the hill (or highland) overlooking the narrow valley of the Tennessee River, on which, and near by, was Pittsburg Landing. Having been halted here for more than an hour, we endured a most ter
ss.> The night of the 6th of April, as has been already stated, was so dark and stormy that it was found impossible properly to collect and organize all the commands. The fighting, moreover, had been protracted even after dusk, on certain parts of the field, before General Beauregard's orders to arrest the conflict could be communicated and carried out. At about half-past 5 o'clock, on the morning of the 7th, the skirmish-firing on our right, in an easterly direction, towards the Tennessee River, indicated that the enemy was about to assume the offensive. Generals Hardee, Breckinridge, and Bragg repaired at once to their respective commands, and availed themselves of such forces as they had immediately at hand, with which to oppose this onset. General Hardee had, under his orders, on his extreme right, two of General Bragg's brigades, namely— Chalmers's and Jackson's, of Withers's division. General Bragg had, on the left of our line, the remainder of his corps, increased by
on raised against the attack at Shiloh is, that it was made to bear too much on the Federal left, which brought the Confederates in too close proximity to the Tennessee River, where their right flank became exposed to the fire of the enemy's two gunboats. The attack was made oblique on the right, as has been already stated in ththat our right flank became really exposed to their fire, and our attack was checked, principally, by the water in the creeks and ravines which empty into the Tennessee River. It must be remembered that the Confederates had no accurate knowledge of the ground occupied by the Federals, and they had no proper staff officers to makyed by the Confederates. While there he first heard, on or about the 29th of March, that Grant's army had moved to Pittsburg Landing, on the left bank of the Tennessee River. General Buell resumed his march on the 31st, intending—having obtained the approval of General Halleck—to stop for cleaning up and rest at Waynesboro; he had
utely traced out for him. He was told by General Beauregard that he must not count upon reinforcements, for all available troops were now being collected in or about western Tennessee, to oppose the Federals, should they attempt to cross the Tennessee River; that he must therefore make up his mind to do his utmost with the troops he would take with him; that he would find two regiments at New Madrid, under Colonel Gantt, and possibly two others, under Colonel L. M. Walker, at Fort Pillow. As aPillow, he was suddenly ordered to Pittsburg Landing by General Halleck, who had arrived there on the 11th, and had officially assumed command. This order was carried out; and on the 21st, General Pope's army was encamped at Hamburg, on the Tennessee River, some twelve miles below the celebrated Landing; thus increasing the Federal forces at and around the battle-field of Shiloh, to an aggregate of at least one hundred and twenty thousand men. General Halleck puts the number at one hundred
ence. Other telegrams and letters to the same effect will be found in the Appendix to this chapter. On his arrival near Pittsburg Landing, General Pope established himself behind Seven Miles Creek, a stream that lies seven miles from the Tennessee River. The Federal forces, as then reorganized, subdivided, and located, amounted, as we have already stated, to about one hundred and twenty-five thousand men, with General Halleck, as first, and General Grant, as second, in command. See Histment seemed to have already taken place in the condition of the troops, when I left there on the 17th instant. Question No. 5.—Was it at no time practicable to have cut the enemy's line of communication, so as to compel him to abandon the Tennessee River, or to permit us to reoccupy Nashville? Answer No. 5.—If it had been possible to effect either object I would not have been slow in attempting it. I shall never be accused of being too slow in taking the offensive or in carrying the war i
ive points must be, first, Louisville, and then Cincinnati. How best to reach them from Chattanooga, with Buell at Huntsville and Stevenson, is the question. It is evident he has the advantage of two bases of operations, the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, and that if we advance towards our objective points without getting rid of him, we would expose our lines of communication with Chattanooga. We must, then, give him battle first, or compel him to retire before us. Should he retire on Naof our forces from Mobile and East Tennessee to follow him rapidly and defeat him in a grand battle, when we would be able to resume our march as before indicated. We must, however, as soon as practicable, construct strong works to command the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, for otherwise our communication would be cut off by the enemy as soon as those two rivers shall have risen sufficiently to admit the entrance of their gunboats and transports. The best positions for said works are abou
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