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The Annals of the Civil War Written by Leading Participants North and South (ed. Alexander Kelly McClure), The Exchange of prisoners. (search)
side the right of making such declarations, whenever it released from captivity or parole, an equal number of the adversary's officers and men. It is important, also, to observe that there were two kinds of paroles-those given on the battle-field, when the parties were there released, and those given by the parties who were delivered at the points designated in the cartel. I have been thus particular in these explanations, that the nomenclature herein used may be fully understood. Aiken's Landing, on James river, a place about thirty miles distant by water from Richmond, and Vicksburg, were the first places selected for the delivery of the prisoners of both belligerents. At the former place I met General Lorenzo Thomas, the first Federal agent of exchange, in August, 1862. Not appreciating the magnitude of the work before us, we began to exchange officers by name, one for another. That method was, however, very soon abandoned for the more expeditious one of exchange by grade,
p from the floor. They did not notice my question, but like sailors weighing anchor, wrenched again at me, exclaiming: We'll fetch him clear this poke! heave ho! yo! ho! I had positively stuck so fast to the floor, that it was only after the most strenuous exertions I succeeded in getting loose, even with the aid of my two rough helpers. Our descriptive list did not come until ten o'clock; but when it did, we were not long in signing it, after which we were taken to Aiken's Landing, some fourteen miles southeast of Richmond. Though a cold rain was still falling at intervals, I did not complain, for I was going home,--thank God! home! Oh, how overflowing was my heart with joy at the prospect! Every drop of rain that pattered on my shivering form, fell upon me like the summer shower falls upon the parched and thirsty grass. I did not complain that I had to march the whole fourteen miles through the cold, mud, and snow, in my bare feet, for I knew that this w
J. B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary, XXIX. August, 1863 (search)
r. Davis was Secretary of War), for alleged stubbornness and disregard of the popular voice; for appointing Pemberton, Holmes, Mallory, etc., with a side fling at Memminger. August 6 A dispatch from Gen. Lee shows that he is still falling back (this side the Rapidan), but gradually concentrating his forces. There may be another battle speedily-and if our army does not gain a great victory, there will be great disappointment. There are some gun-boats in the James as high up as Aiken's Landing. Two torpedoes, badly ignited, failed to injure either of them. Capt. Kay, of Mobile, in conjunction with several other parties, has a scheme for the destruction of the enemy in the Mississippi Valley. What it is, I know not-but I know large sums of money are asked for. After all, it appears that twenty-two transports of Grant's troops have descended the Mississippi River-Mobile, no doubt, being their destination. It is now believed that only a portion of Grant's army has b
General Horace Porter, Campaigning with Grant, Chapter 19 (search)
almost any position — if he only starts in time. Stanton laughed heartily at the general's way of putting it, and remarked: But in all retreats I am told that there is another principle to be observed: a man must not look back. I think it was Caesar who said to an officer in his army who had retreated repeatedly, but who afterward appeared before his commander and pointed with pride to a wound on his cheek: Ah! I see you are wounded in the face; you should not have looked back. At Aiken's Landing General Butler joined the party, and pointed out the objects of interest along his lines. Mr. Stanton then spoke with much earnestness of the patient labors and patriotic course of the President. There had been rumors of disagreements and unpleasant scenes at times between the distinguished Secretary of War and his chief; but there evidently was little, if any, foundation for such reports, and certainly upon this occasion the Secretary manifested a genuine personal affection for Mr.
September 12. To-day one hundred and eleven rebel prisoners were sent from Fortress Monroe to Aiken's Landing, Va., for exchange. This morning the rebel army under Gen. E. Kirby Smith in full retreat from their position before Cincinnati, Ohio, were pursued by a portion of the Union forces under Gen. Wallace, as far as Florence, Ky.--In view of the invasion of Pennsylvania by the rebel army under General Lee, the City Council of Philadelphia appropriated five hundred thousand dollars for the defence of the city and State, and gave the Mayor of the city full power to act as he might see fit. The public archives, bonds, and treasure of the State of Pennsylvania and cities of Harrisburgh and Philadelphia were sent to New York for safe keeping. Many of the capitalists of the State also sent their bonds and treasure. A fight took place on the southern bank of Elk River, near Charleston, Va., between a Union force under Col. Lightburn and a large body of rebels, which laste
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 5.69 (search)
two-horse or mule teams as one, will be allowed to transport such articles as cannot be carried along. The same conditions will be allowed to all sick and wounded officers and soldiers as fast as they become able to travel. The paroles for these latter must be signed, however, whilst officers present are authorized to sign the roll of prisoners. By the terms of the cartel then in force, prisoners captured by either army were required to be forwarded, as soon as possible, to either Aiken's Landing below Dutch Gap, on the James River, or to Vicksburg, there to be exchanged, or paroled until they could be exchanged. There was a Confederate Commissioner at Vicksburg, authorized to make the exchange. I did not propose to take him prisoner, but to leave him free to perform the functions of his office. Had I insisted upon an unconditional surrender, there would have been over thirty-odd thousand men to transport to Cairo, very much to the inconvenience of the army on the Mississippi
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 13: invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania-operations before Petersburg and in the Shenandoah Valley. (search)
mplated movement of Meade's army against the right flank of the Confederates at Petersburg. And so the enterprise promised success for the Nationals, at one end of the line at least. Birney was to cross the river at Deep Bottom, and Ord at Aiken's Landing, eight miles above. Both were to be on the north side of the river, and ready to advance rapidly at daybreak on the morning of the 29th of September. Birney was to capture the Confederate works in front of Deep Bottom, and gain the New Mareral occupied the two log-houses seen in the front, and his staff some of the smaller ones near. The mansion is seen in the rear of Headquarters. General Butler established his Headquarters at the mansion of a farm about two miles from Aiken's Landing, and one from Dutch Gap. Professor Coppee, author of Grant and his Campaigns, was furnished, by an officer of the Lieutenant-General's staff, with the following tabular statement of casualties in the Army of the Potomac, from May 5 to Nov
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 21: closing events of the War.--assassination of the President. (search)
ning of the 28th of December. 1864. On the following day we went up the James River, with General Butler, on his elegant little dispatch steamer, Ocean Queen, to City Point, where, after a brief interview with General Grant, we proceeded to Aiken's Landing, the neutral ground for the exchange of prisoners. It was dark when we arrived there. We made our way in an ambulance, over a most wretched road, to Butler's Headquarters, See picture on page 362. within seven miles of Richmond, where wer's Headquarters at twilight, where we found George D. Prentice, editor of the Louisville Journal, who had just come through the lines from Richmond. With him and Captain Clarke, of Butler's staff, we journeyed the next day on horseback to Aiken's Landing, crossed the James on a pontoon bridge, rode to Bermuda Hundred, and then went up the Appomattox to Point of Rocks in the Ocean Queen, which the general placed at our disposal. There we mounted to the summit of the signal-tower delineated o
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 22: prisoners.-benevolent operations during the War.--readjustment of National affairs.--conclusion. (search)
ond, as a Government in fact? Humanity took precedence of policy in the Cabinet councils, and an arrangement was made for the exchange of prisoners. A commissioner was appointed by each party for the purpose. Colonel W. H. Ludlow was chosen for the service by the Government, and the Conspirators. appointed Robert Ould to perform like duties. The former had his Headquarters at Fortress Monroe, and the latter had his at Richmond. Prisoners were sent in boats to and from each place. Aiken's Landing and its vicinity, on the James River, finally became a sort of neutral ground, where the exchanges took place. The operations of exchange were facilitated by the Government, as much as possible, because of accounts which came, from the beginning of the war, like a flood, concerning the cruel treatment accorded to the Union prisoners in the hands of the insurgents, at Richmond and elsewhere. The business of exchange went regularly on until it was violently interrupted by Jefferson Da
Benjamnin F. Butler, Butler's Book: Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major-General Benjamin Butler, Chapter 13: occupations in 1863; exchange of prisoners. (search)
liatory measures of the rebels, as to the fear of the lieutenant-general lest any further exchange of prisoners should be effected:-- City Point, Aug. 18, 1864. General Butler: I see the steamer New York has arrived. Is she going to Aiken's Landing or elsewhere under flag of truce? U. S. Grant, Lieutenant-General. [Telegram.] headquarters Department of Virginia and North Carolina, in the field, Aug. 18, 1864. Lieutenant-General Grant, City Point: Steamer New York is to go to AikAiken's Landing under flag of truce, at which place she is to receive certain communications and special exchanges, among whom is General Bartlett, and to arrange a meeting between Commissioner Ould and myself for a conference in regard to the treatment of our prisoners and some cases of retaliation. Benj. F. Butler, Major-General Commanding. Finding how fearfully sensitive the lieutenant-general was lest Sherman's defeat should be insured and our safety compromised, and not then knowing what
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