means those four rivers; especially as to Geon or Nile, which
arises from the east, while he very well knew the literal Nile arises from
the south; though what further allegorical sense he had in view, is now,
I fear, impossible to be determined.
which ran round about the whole earth, and was parted into four parts.
And Phison, which denotes a multitude, running into India, makes its exit
into the sea, and is by the Greeks called Ganges. Euphrates also, as well
as Tigris, goes down into the Red Sea. By
the Red Sea is not here meant the Arabian Gulf, which alone we now call
by that name, but all that South Sea, which included the Red Sea, and the
Persian Gulf, as far as the East Indies; as Reland and Hudson here truly
note, from the old geographers.
Now the name Euphrates, or Phrath, denotes either a dispersion, or a flower:
by Tiris, or Diglath, is signified what is swift, with narrowness; and
Geon runs through Egypt, and denotes what arises from the east, which the
Greeks call Nile.
his foreign expedition and started to relieve his own
The fact was that when the general Xenoetas had been despatched with
absolute powers, as I have beforeXenoetas at first successful.
stated, his unexpected elevation caused him to
treat his friends with haughtiness and his
enemies with overweening temerity. His first move however
was sufficiently prudent. He marched to Seleucia, and after
sending for Diogenes the governor of Susiana, and Pythiades
the commander in the Persian Gulf, he led out his forces and
encamped with the river Tigris protecting his front. But there
he was visited by many men from Molon's camp, who swam
across the river and assured him that, if he would only cross
the Tigris, the whole of Molon's army would declare for him;
for the common soldiers were jealous of Molon and warmly
disposed towards the king. Xenoetas was encouraged by
these statements to attempt the passage of the Tigris. He
made a feint of bridging the river at a spot where it is
sed theMolon's successful campaign. B.C. 221.
river in perfect safety and without any resistance, as Zeuxis also now fled at his approach;
took possession of the latter's camp, and then
advanced with his whole army to Seleucia; carried it at the
first assault, Zeuxis and Diomedon the governor of the place
both abandoning it and flying; and advancing from this place
reduced the upper Satrapies to submission without a blow.
That of Babylon fell next, and then the Satrapy which lay along
the Persian Gulf. This brought him to Susa, which he also
carried without a blow; though his assaults upon the citadel
proved unavailing, because Diogenes the general had thrown himself into it before he could get there. He therefore abandoned
the idea of carrying it by storm, and leaving a detachment to
lay siege to it, hurried back with his main army to Seleucia on
the Tigris. There he took great pains to refresh his army,
and after addressing his men in encouraging terms he started
once more to complet
made arrangements for the government of the Satrapies round
it, treating all with equal clemency and prudence. But Hermeias acted with his usual harshness: he got up charges
against the people of Seleucia, and imposed a fine of a thousand talents upon the city; drove their magistrates, called
Adeiganes, into exile; and put many Seleucians to death with
various tortures, by mutilation, the sword and the rack. With
great difficulty, sometimes by dissuading Hermeias, and sometimes by interposing his own authority, the king did at length
put an end to these severities; and, exacting only a fine of a
hundred and fifty talents from the citizens for the error they
had committed, restored the city to a state of order. This
being done, he left Diogenes in command of Media, and
Apollodorus of Susiana; and sent Tychon, his chief military
secretary, to command the district along the Persian Gulf.
Thus was the rebellion of Molon and the rising in the
upper Satrapies suppressed and quieted.
M. Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia (ed. Sir Edward Ridley), book 8, line 211 (search)
f descentJuba was of supposed collateral descent from Hannibal. (Haskins, quoting 'The Scholiast.')
'Supposed from Hannibal, is swollen with pride
'At Varus' prayer for aid, and sees in thought
Rome's fates beneath his own. Then, comrades, seek
'At speed, the Eastern world. Those mighty realms
'Euphrates severs from us, and the gates
'Called Caspian; on another sky than ours
' There day and night revolve; another sea
' Of different hue is parted from our own.Confusing the Red Sea with the Persian Gulf.
' Rule is their wish, nought else: and in their plains
' Taller the war-horse, stronger twangs the bow;
' There fails nor youth nor age to wing the shaft
' Fatal in flight. Their archers first subdued
' The lance of Macedon and Bactra's Balkh of modern times. Bactria was one of the kingdoms established by the successors of Alexander the Great. It was, however, subdued by the Parthians about the middle of the third century B.C. walls,
' Home of the Mede; and haughty Babylon
' With all he