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is 190 feet. The least bottom width is 72 feet. The highest ground cut through is at El Guisr, where it is 85 feet; at Serapeum it is 62 feet; and at Chalouf, near Suez, it is 56 feet. The excavation of the canal, although of considerable difficulty, was exceeded by the necessity for creating artificial harbors at the extremitily at anchor. At the other extremity of the canal, a mole 2,550 feet in length protects the channel, which has been dredged to the depth of 27 feet. The mole at Suez differs from that at Port Said in construction; the latter being formed of concrete blocks of 13 cubic feet, the former of stone quarried from the neighboring moueet-pea, a measure of weight among the Arabs, equal to four grains of barley. Car′a-van. (Vehicle.) a. A vehicle for conveying passengers between Cairo and Suez. It is shaped like a light wagon, with top and curtains. A number of them used to meet the passengers arriving by the Red Sea or Mediterranean steam vessels, and
ibya, as seen in the first four figures, Plate XXIX. The Egyptians were of known Asiatic origin, and it was considered more logical to include them in Asia. The eastern border of the land, abutting upon Libya, was for a time adopted. Afterwards the Tanais and the Nile were the limits of Asia, one half of Egypt being ascribed to Africa. Herodotus considered it absurd to divide the country of one people between two continents. Ptolemy, the geographer, defined the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez as the boundary between the continents. Next is the map of the world according to Eratosthenes and Strabo. Eratosthenes (276-196 B. C.) of Alexandria was the discoverer of the obliquity of the ecliptic, and was the founder of geodesy. He determined the circumference of the earth by measuring a degree of the meridian. Measurements of an are of the meridian have been made by the Chaldeans, by Eratosthenes, by Al Maimon, by Pire, and more lately by the French, English, Germans, and others;
, which opened to afford ships a passage through and then quickly shut again. He speaks of the canal as constructed by Necos, the son of Psammeticus, afterward partially restored by Darius the Persian, and subsequently by Ptolemy the second. Strabo mentions an eriplus (a gate) which Ptolemy Philadolphus constructed when he reopened the canal, and which opened an easy passage from the Red Sea to the canal. The French Survey, during their occupation of Egypt, determined that the Red Sea at Suez at high water is 32 feet 6 inches higher than the Mediterranean at Tyneh at low water. The ancient canal was made by Sesostris, according to Aristotle, Strabo, and Pliny. It commenced about 12 miles northeast of the modern town of Belbays, the Bubastis Agria of the Romans, and was about 96 miles long. It appears to have been reopened by Necho, about 605 B. C., and Ptolemy Philadelphus, about 300 B. C. 60,000 men are said to have perished in the latter undertaking It was neglected by the
o Aviano, Turkey50400 1859*Ceuta, Africa, to Algesiras, Spain25700 1859*Cape Otway, Circular Head24060 1860Great Belt, Denmark (2 cables)1418 1860*Dacca, Hindostan, to Pegu11650 1860*Port Vendres, France, to Algiers5201,585 1859 and 1860*Suez, Egypt, to Cassire, Egypt255Shallow water. 1860*Suakin, Red Sea, to Cassire474 1860*Suakin, Red Sea, to Aden, Arabia627 1860*Aden, Arabia, to Hellania, Arabia718 1860*Hellania, Arabia, to Muscat, Arabia486 1860*Muscat, Arabia, to Kurrachee, Indi5842,760 1869St. Pierre to Duxbury, U. S.749259 1869Moen to Bornholm, Sweden8028 1869Bornholm, Sweden, to Libau23062 1870Scotland to Orkney Isles37 1870Salcombe, England, to Brignogan, France10159 1870Beachy Head to Cape Antifer7034 1870Suez, Egypt, to Aden, Arabia1,460968 1870Aden, Arabia, to Bombay1,8182,060 1870Porthcurno, England, to Lisbon8232,625 1870Lisbon to Gibraltar331535 1870Gibraltar to Malta1,1201,450 1870*Porthcurno to Mid Channel6562 1870Marseilles, France, to Bona,