ones alternately laid flat and set up endwise; the latter were usually much longer than the others.
This is termed long and short work (J).
Stone at Baalbek.
In the Norman period, herring-bone work (K) was frequently employed in rubble walls.
The stones used during the Middle Ages were seldom larger than could f say five feet.
The largest stones ever placed in a wall by the hand of man are probably those in the foundations of the west and north sides of the temple of Baalbek.
Thompson says: —
The first tier above ground consists of stones of different lengths, but all above 12 feet thick and the same in width.
Then come three stoody and back 6 1/2 meters, or about 72, 21, and 21 English feet, which, at 13 cubic feet per ton, yields nearly 2,500 tons.
See also masonry, where the stones of Baalbek are noticed.
（Sugar.) A force-pump by which the juice from the canemill is raised to the clarifiers on the story above.
the obelisks of Thebes and Heliopolis.
The modes of quarrying may have differed somewhat, according to the material and the position.
One granite obelisk was broken after it was cut and before it was removed.
From the size of the opening it would be impossible to turn the stone, which would require to be lifted bodily, like other stones removed from the same quarry.
Bronze was the usual metal of the tools.
The largest stones in any known building are those of the temple platform at Baalbek.
The Egyptian mode of quarrying was by uncovering the stratum of stone, leveling the surface, and marking out an area sufficient to yield the amount of stone required.
Around this was cut a deep trench, and cross-trenches at right angles divided the whole area into squares of such a size as was required.
Layer after layer was then removed.
Another mode was by working on a perpendicular face, forming a series of steps on the side of the mountain, from which the blocks were lowered by