eaks down when an outburst of anger, or
popular delusion, or internal dissension, has actually occurred;
for it makes it impossible for the commander to soothe excited
feelings, to remove misapprehensions, or to show the ignorant
their error. Armies in such a state are not usually content
with mere human wickedness; they end by assuming the
ferocity of wild beasts and the vindictiveness of insanity.
This is just what happened in this case. There were in the
army Iberians and Celts, men from Liguria and the Balearic
Islands, and a considerable number of half-bred Greeks,
mostly deserters and slaves; while the main body consisted of
Libyans. Consequently it was impossible to collect and address
them en masse, or to approach them with this view by any
means whatever. There was no help for it: the general could
not possibly know their several languages; and to make a
speech four or five times on the same subject, by the mouths
of several interpreters, was almost more impossible, if I may
s returns home.
thousand taken prisoners, among whom was one
of their kings, Concolitanus: the other king,
Aneroestes, fled with a few followers; joined
a few of his people in escaping to a place of security; and
there put an end to his own life and that of his friends.
Lucius Aemilius, the surviving Consul, collected the spoils of
the slain and sent them to Rome, and restored the property
taken by the Gauls to its owners. Then taking command
of the legions, he marched along the frontier of Liguria,
and made a raid upon the territory of the Boii; and having
satisfied the desires of the legions with plunder, returned with
his forces to Rome in a few days' march. There he adorned
the Capitol with the captured standards and necklaces, which
are gold chains worn by the Gauls round their necks; but
the rest of the spoils, and the captives, he converted to the
benefit of his own estate and to the adornment of his triumph.
Thus was the most formidable Celtic invasion repelled,B. C. 224.
Polybius, Histories, book 3, The Consuls Set Out to Iberia and Libya (search)
ronius prepares to attack Carthage.
preparations for their respective missions, set sail at the beginning of summer—Publius to Iberia, with sixty
ships, and Tiberius Sempronius to Libya, with a
hundred and sixty quinqueremes. The latter
thought by means of this great fleet to strike
terror into the enemy; and made vast preparations at Lilybaeum,
collecting fresh troops wherever he could get them, as
though with the view of at once blockading Carthage itself.
Publius Cornelius coasted along Liguria, and crossing inPublius Scipio lands near Marseilles.
five days from Pisae to Marseilles, dropped
anchor at the most eastern mouth of the Rhone,
called the Mouth of Marseilles,Pluribus enim divisus amnis
in mare decurrit (Livy, 21, 26). and began
disembarking his troops. For though he heard that Hannibal
was already crossing the Pyrenees, he felt sure that he was
still a long way off, owing to the difficulty of his line of country,
and the number of the intervening Celtic tribes. But long
Polybius, Histories, book 7, Treaty Between Hannibal and King Philip V. of Macedon (search)
rving with him, all
members of the Carthaginian dominion living
under the same laws, as well as the people of
Utica, and the cities and tribes subject to Carthage, and their
soldiers and allies, and all cities and tribes in Italy, Celt-land,
and Liguria, with whom we have a compact of friendship, and
with whomsoever in this country we may hereafter form such
compact, be supported by King Philip and the Macedonians,
and all other Greeks in alliance with them.
(2) On their parts also King Philip allies, shall
be supported and protected by the Carthaginians
now in this army, and by the people of Utica,
and by all cities and tribes subject to Carthage,
both soldiers and allies, and by all allied cities and tribes in
Italy, Celt-land, and Liguria, and by all others in Italy as
shall hereafter become allies of the Carthaginians. and the Cartha-ginians.
(3) We will not make plots against, nor lie in ambush for,2d article sworn to by Philip's representative.
each other; but in all sincerity