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o remain at 53°, 06 Fah.; in the chalk, at a depth of 1,319 feet, it marked 76°. 3; in the gault, at 1,657 feet, 79°. 6; and the water flowing from the well has a uniform temperature of 81°. 8, indicating a rate of increase of 1°.7 for each 100 feet below the limit of constant temperature. The springs which supply the King's Bath, at Bath, England, have a temperature of 117°, and the spring of Orense, in Gallicia, has a temperature of 180° Fah. The artesian Brine-well of Kissingen, in Bavaria, was begun in 1832, and in 1850 water was reached at 1,878 feet. The depth reached by farther boring was about 2,000 feet. The water has a temperature of 66° Fah., and issues at the rate of 100 cubic feet per minute. The ejecting force is supposed to be derived from a subterranean atmosphere of carbonic-acid gas, acting with a force of 60 atmospheres. The tubings are concentric, water rising between the outer and middle tubes, passing down between the middle and inner tubes to the bed of
from the celebrated Borrowdale Mine in Cumberland; but after that mine became exhausted the world was supplied with pencils made from the impure graphite found in Bavaria and Bohemia, purified for the purpose. Bavaria is well represented by the Messrs. Faber, whose pencils of all qualities are so well known. But recently the finBavaria is well represented by the Messrs. Faber, whose pencils of all qualities are so well known. But recently the fine graphite found at Ticonderoga, in the State of New York, has been utilized for this purpose by the Dixon Crucible Company of Jersey City, and a fine quality of pencils produced, —the company having been awarded the Medal of Progress for them by the Vienna Universal Exposition, 1873. Graphite is polymorphous, has a bright metalcimen brought to us from Japan is of the same character; but the granulated graphite best and longest known to commerce is found in vast quantities in Bohemia and Bavaria. It is divided in water and floated, to separate it into grades, not being pure enough as it comes from the mines. It is cheap in price, but poor in quality for
edimentary limestone from the upper beds of the Jurassic formation. Lithographic stones of various sizes and weights are now articles of commerce all over the world. They are obtained almost solely from the extensive quarries of Solenhofen, in Bavaria. France furnishes a very hard and dark blue stone, which is but little used. In Canada stone of good quality is said to exist, as also in Missouri; but little is known of either. The Bavarian stone occurs in nearly horizontal layers. When th of the highest order is Senefelder's indisputable right. Almost the only stone suitable for lithographic work is a compact, sedimentary limestone of a yellowish or bluish-gray color, which comes from the now celebrated Solenhofen quarries in Bavaria. Such stratified slabs of stone as separate naturally into layers of from two to five inches in thickness are fit for lithographic use. They are trimmed on the edges so as to give them a rectangular form, are ground by moving one upon another,
e roasted in a furnace, the whole volatile results of the furnace passing with the metalliferous fumes to a series of condensing-chambers. See condenser. See previous article. The latter is the plan adopted at Idria in Austria, the former in Bavaria and California. Dr. Ure's retort-furnace, erected at Landsberg in Bavaria, resembles the apparatus for the distillation of coalgas. In Spain, the old Buytrone or Aludel furnace is still adhered to. See Aludel. Mer′cu-ry-gath′er-er. (Bavaria, resembles the apparatus for the distillation of coalgas. In Spain, the old Buytrone or Aludel furnace is still adhered to. See Aludel. Mer′cu-ry-gath′er-er. (Metallurgy.) A stirring apparatus in which floured quicksilver, which has been rendered what is technically known as sick, is gathered together. See amalgam. Quicksilver-Gatherer. Mercury which is floured is in a sort of powdery condition, the particles being coated with sulphur from the pyrites or from other cause; and the object of the mechanical agitation and rubbing, in the mercury-gatherer, is to cause the globules of mercury to coalesce and resume the fluid condition. Me-
a tower. The earliest manuscript on linen paper known to be English bears date fourteenth year of Edward III., 1320. The first water-mark, a ram's head, is found in a book of accounts belonging to an official of Bordeaux, which was then subject to England, dated 1330. It has been claimed that linen paper was made in England as early as 1330, though it is supposed that no linen paper was made in Italy previous to 1367. In 1390, Ulman Strother established a paper-mill at Nuremberg in Bavaria, operated by two rollers, which set in motion eighteen stampers. This indicates the process of pulping the fiber by beating, which continued in use for nearly four centuries. This was the first paper-mill known to have been established in Germany, and is said to have been the first in Europe for manufacturing paper from linen rags. In 1498, an entry appears among the privy expenses of Henry VII. for a reward given to the paper-mill, 16 s. 8 d. This is probably the papermill mentioned b
lon-Noor, which is yet the great foundry for the lands over which the religion of Buddha prevails. Schwanthaler's colossal bronze statue of the feminine genius Bavaria, is 54 feet high, and erected on a pedestal 30 feet in hight, in front of the Ruhmeshalle, at Munich. A winding staircase in the interior leads to the head, wherwashed in water, and, unlike silver, is not liable to become tarnished by sulphureted gases. Stau′ro-scope. A kind of polariscope invented by Von Kobell, of Bavaria, about 1855, and particularly designed for investigating the effects of polarized light upon crystals belonging to different crystallographic systems. — Poggendort out of his coat and the seams taken up by fine-drawing. The introduction of bones and metal into the female breastplate is credited to the court of Isabel of Bavaria, about 1417, and the illiberal chronicler has suggested that the device was padded to conceal deformity, and stiffened to act as a scoliosis brace. Catharine de M
usehold implements of every kind, which, dispatched to Paris from Olbernau, in fragile wooden boxes, are sold for two or three francs. Beasts, covered with velvety coats, colored according to the animal, are made at Rodach, toys in porcelain at Ohrdruff; whilst the baby dolls, simply attired, come from Sonnenberg, Neustadt, and Wallerhausen. Men made in plaster are dispatched to us from Prussia, whilst leaden soldiers, measuring about an inch in hight, painted and heavily armed, come from Bavaria, Nuremberg, and Furth. Household utensils in china — such as pipkins, saucepans, cups and saucers, dolls' heads in china, games of lotto, penny watches, wooden wheelbarrows, spades, and rakes — are made in the departments. The Quartier du Temple, in Paris, produces all other toys. The population of that curious old quartier are now wholly occupied by toy-making, and each workman has his speciality. For instance, the man who makes rabbits striking on a drum with their fore-paws makes n
forceps. d, Tiemann's uvulatome. b, vulsellum. e, Green's double hook. c, uvula-scissors with claws. Vac′ci-nator. (Surgical.) An instrument for introducing vaccine virus beneath the skin. The puncturing-tube, with virus in its aperture, is pressed through the skin, and the virus driven into the wound by the force of the spring when the trigger is pushed in. The king of Prussia has commanded his army to be inoculated [vaccine matter], and it is believed that Nassau and Bavaria will compel a universal inoculation in their dominions. Exterminating the small-pox and annihilating the little princes and states of Germany, are the two great projects of the reforming part of Germany. — Monthly Magazine, London, May 1, 1801. Inoculation, which, prior to the great discovery of Jenner, was regarded as the best protection against the horrors of the small-pox, was practiced in China at a very early period, and probably found its way to Europe by the same secret channels <