f the Father of history, whose credit grows brighter and brighter as years roll by, — tardy justice.
Famous cannon of the world.
In the eleventh century, if we may credit the chronicle of Alphonso VI., written by Pedro, bishop of Leon, the vessels of the king of Tunis, in the attack on Seville, had on board a number of iron pipes, out of which volumes of thundering fire were discharged.
In the fourteenth century the references to the uses of cannon became common.
Ferdinand took Gibraltar from the Moors by cannon, in 1308.
Petrarch refers to them about the same time.
The English (at Crecy, 1346), the Moors, Arragonese, French, and Danes, used them during that century.
Metallic cannon were originally made by welding bars of iron longitudinally and binding them by rings, which were shrunk on over them while hot, — a plan which, with some modifications, has been revived of late years, and seems more feasible in the present state of the arts than it was 500 years ago.
her entirely or comparatively rainless.
Local causes frequently determine the amount of rain which may fall in a short time at a given spot.
This not unfrequently amounts to a large fraction of the annual precipitation.
At London, on the 27th of November, 1845, 6 1/2 inches, more than 1/4 of the total annual amount, fell within 24 hours.
At Joyense, in the department of the Ardeche, France, 31.173 inches have been known to fall in 22 hours; at Genoa, 30 inches in 24 hours: and at Gibraltar, 33 inches in 26 hours, — the latter equaling the total yearly fall in England and in the Northern United States.
At San Diego, California, but 5 inches fall in the course of the year.
Grass Valley, in the same State, has an annual fall of 60 inches.
The tropics, as being the great source for supplying the atmosphere with aqueous vapor by evaporation, naturally constitute the great area of precipitation, though, owing to other causes modifying the normal distribution of rain, the av