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f the Father of history, whose credit grows brighter and brighter as years roll by, — tardy justice. Famous cannon of the world. In the eleventh century, if we may credit the chronicle of Alphonso VI., written by Pedro, bishop of Leon, the vessels of the king of Tunis, in the attack on Seville, had on board a number of iron pipes, out of which volumes of thundering fire were discharged. In the fourteenth century the references to the uses of cannon became common. Ferdinand took Gibraltar from the Moors by cannon, in 1308. Petrarch refers to them about the same time. The English (at Crecy, 1346), the Moors, Arragonese, French, and Danes, used them during that century. Metallic cannon were originally made by welding bars of iron longitudinally and binding them by rings, which were shrunk on over them while hot, — a plan which, with some modifications, has been revived of late years, and seems more feasible in the present state of the arts than it was 500 years ago. S
wever, the ship Hamilla Mitchell was lost on the Leuconia rocks, near Shanghai; and two English divers, provided with the apparatus of Siebe and Gorman, were subsequently sent from Liverpool to attempt the rescue of the treasure on board. One of these succeeded in remaining four consecutive hours under water at the depth of 23 fathoms upon one occasion, during which he recovered 64 boxes of specie. The engraving on the opposite page illustrates submarine operations at the anchorage off Gibraltar, as conducted with the diving-bell in conjunction with divers arrayed in the apparatus of Ronquayral and Denayrouze. In this, whether the man be naked or covered with impervious clothing, his respiration may be made to depend on the exercise of his own will and the power of his lungs, or the air-supply reservoir may be supplied by air-pumps above, as shown in the figure. The artificial lung or air-supply regulator consists of a strong metallic reservoir, preferably steel, capable of resi
gthened so as to be shot-proof, or as nearly so as possible, and intended for operating in comparatively smooth water, for defending harbors or attacking fortifications. We are told that a ship of this kind called the Santa Anna, sheathed with lead, of 1,700 tons burden, carrying 50 guns and having a crew of 300 men, was built at Nice in 1530. She belonged to the Knights of St. John, and was employed by Charles. V. against Tunis in 1535. Crimean floating-battery. At the siege of Gibraltar in 1782, by the French and Spanish, ten Spanish war vessels were converted into floating-batteries by strengthening their sides with timber, raw hides, and junk, to a thickness of seven feet; they were also fitted with sloping bombproof roofs or decks, and are said to have mounted 212 guns, principally 32-pounders, which were considered heavy guns in those days; they were manned with more than 5,600 men, and provided with furnaces for heating shot and arrangements for extinguishing fires.
her entirely or comparatively rainless. Local causes frequently determine the amount of rain which may fall in a short time at a given spot. This not unfrequently amounts to a large fraction of the annual precipitation. At London, on the 27th of November, 1845, 6 1/2 inches, more than 1/4 of the total annual amount, fell within 24 hours. At Joyense, in the department of the Ardeche, France, 31.173 inches have been known to fall in 22 hours; at Genoa, 30 inches in 24 hours: and at Gibraltar, 33 inches in 26 hours, — the latter equaling the total yearly fall in England and in the Northern United States. At San Diego, California, but 5 inches fall in the course of the year. Grass Valley, in the same State, has an annual fall of 60 inches. The tropics, as being the great source for supplying the atmosphere with aqueous vapor by evaporation, naturally constitute the great area of precipitation, though, owing to other causes modifying the normal distribution of rain, the av
Aden, Arabia1,460968 1870Aden, Arabia, to Bombay1,8182,060 1870Porthcurno, England, to Lisbon8232,625 1870Lisbon to Gibraltar331535 1870Gibraltar to Malta1,1201,450 1870*Porthcurno to Mid Channel6562 1870Marseilles, France, to Bona, Africa447Gibraltar to Malta1,1201,450 1870*Porthcurno to Mid Channel6562 1870Marseilles, France, to Bona, Africa4471,600 1870Bona, Africa, to Malta386650 1870Madras to Penang1,4081,284 1870Penang to Singapore40036 1870Singapore to Batavia55722 1870Malta to Alexandria, Egypt9041,440 1870Batabano, Cuba, to Santiago, Cuba520 1870Jersey to Guernsey1632 1870Gs erected at each end, and these, together with the arched conduit, are in good condition yet. The stone mountain of Gibraltar is tunneled into galleries, from whose embrasures peep the grim cannon which defend the bay and the neutral ground. Quite a change since Gibraltar, Gebel el Tarik, Tarik's Mountain, was the scene of the landing of this lieutenant of the Emir Musa, April, A. D. 711. Musa the Saracen conquered Spain. The galleries in the rock are nearly 3 mites long, large enough t