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is, and many other places. Chemnitz water-elevator. It does not appear that Dr. Papin tried the direct pressure of a body of air upon the water; in a manner similar to the pressure of steam upon the surface of the water in the so-called steam-engines of Baptista Porta, 1600; De Caus, 1620; Marquis of Worcester, 1655; Savery, 1698. See steam-engine. For many years past — probably a century or more — water-elevators operating by condensed air have been used at the mines of Chemnitz in Hungary. A high column of water is used to condense a column of air in a pipe, so that the power of the apparatus is proportioned to the vertical height of the fall which is available. In the mountainous districts of Central Europe some remarkable falls are thus utilized, some of which are referred to under turbine. In the Black Forest of Baden turbines are running with falls of 72 and 354 feet, and having diameters of from 20 to 13 inches respectively. In the figure, the vertical elevation i
g the hole with an explosive, and then firing it off. Improvements appertain to the modes of drilling the holes, the composition of the explosive, and the means of igniting. Gunpowder is said to have been first used for blasting in Germany or Hungary, A. D. 1620; and some German miners, brought to England by Prince Rupert, introduced the practice at the copper mine of Eckford, in Staffordshire, the same year. The preliminary operation in blasting consists in boring or drilling holes, in wshing, from the derived name of the material which is used in applying the polishing material. Buff-leather. A strong oil-leather prepared from the hide of the buffalo, elk, or ox. It is so named from the buffe, or wild bull, of Poland and Hungary. Formerly it was largely used for armor. It was said to be pistol-shot proof, and capable of turning the edge of a sword. It was tanned soft and white. Its place is now filled by the leather of cow-skins for a common, and of the American buf
they were used by the Lombards in the fourteenth century; and Martius states that they were common in Italy in the fifteenth century. Table-forks are heard of in Italy from 1458 to 1490. An Italian at the court of Matthias Corvinas, king of Hungary, notices the lack of the fork in the table furniture of the king. A century after, they were not known in France or Sweden. Coryat, in his Crudities, 1611, says: I observed a custom in all those Italian cities and towns through which I passeated body of water compresses the air in a lower chamber; the pressure is transmitted to the air in a chamber above, the water of which is ejected in a jet. The principle has been made use of in emptying the water from the mines of Schemnitz, Hungary. (See Fig. 58.) Hero has anticipated by 2,000 years some of the modern parlor fountains, in which a body of compressed air above the water in the reservoir below is made the means of driving a jet of water into the air. An adjustment in two
n a thrashingmachine by putting the grain through a second time, substituting for the ordinary cover a tin case with teeth made by punching holes through it from the outside. Hand-hummelers or aveling-machines (Fig. 2609) are used upon the grain spread on the barn floor, being either rolled or dragged. The Japanese hummel their rice in a mortar made of a section of a large tree hollowed out. Hun-ga′ri — an Leath′er. (Leather.) A white leather originally made in and imported from Hungary, but now manufactured in other countries. Mineral salts are substituted for vegetable extracts. The hides are first treated with a mixture of alum and common salt, by which a portion of the sulphate is converted into the chloride of aluminium. An excess of salt keeps the hides supple. The fleshing and scraping processes are proceeded with as in the ordinary modes of tanning, but the hair is removed by shearing instead of liming. The first alum bath has, alum 7 pounds, salt 4 1/2 p
mber a′, and by its pressure caused to open the valve and pass out through the compartment g of the head and through the pipe j to the cooler, in which it passes first through the pipes c′, and afterward through the pipes c′, and is thereby cooled. From the cooler the compressed air passes through the pipe m into the compartment n of the back cylinderhead e, whence it passes through the valve o into the expansion-chamber a′ of the cylinder during a porin the hydraulic machine of Chemnitz, Hungary (see page 28), in which air is highly compressed in a closed reservoir under a column of water. If a stop-cock in this reservoir be suddenly opened, the expanding air rushing out produces a degree of cold sufficient to freeze the drops of water which it brings with it into pellets of ice. Machines acting by expansion of air-envelope. Kirk's apparatus (English) was of this character; that is, it absorbed heat by the expansion of air when liberated after compression by suitable mechan
nd rhinoceros skins also find their way to the tan-vat and a market. 1. Morocco leather is made from goat and kid skins, a peculiar grain being given to the surface. 2. Chamois, shammy, shamoy, or shamois leather was originally prepared from the skin of the chamois, but the skins of other goats, and even of sheep, are now dressed in the soft manner, and furnish skins for polishing, for gloves, and other purposes. 3. Buff-leather is so named from the buffe or wild bull of Poland and Hungary. It was used for armor, and tanned soft and white. It is yet used for cartridge-boxes and saber-belts in Europe. 4. Whang is tough leather made from skins of calves, dogs, ground-hogs, etc. It is used for bagstrings, whip-crackers, belt-lacing, and other occasional purposes. 5. Russet is leather finished except the coloring and polishing. In this condition tanned hides are stored, so as to be completed in any desired manner as the demand may suggest. 6. Roan; a leather made from
abar?) were received yearly from that source, and that the Greeks received it from thence 800 years previously to the date at which he wrote (A. D. 70). (See amalgam.) It is now mined extensively at Idria, in the Schiefergebirge, and is found in Hungary, many parts of Germany, in China, Japan, Mexico, Honduras, Columbia, Peru, and California. The modes of obtaining mercury by the decomposition and distillation of cinnabar have been very imperfect and wasteful; and even at this day, with all rous. The Almaden mines of Spain were known to the Greeks 700 B. C., and were celebrated in the time of Pliny. The mines of Idria, the Palatinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich. The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili. In the furnace the ore is subjected to distillation in retorts which lead to condensing-chambers, or the blocks of ore are roasted in a furnace, the whole volatile results of the furnace passing with the metallifero
2 BengalCoss2,000 BirmahDain4,277 BohemiaLeague (16 to 1°)7,587 BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFeddan1.47 EnglandMile1,760 FlandersMijle1,093.63 FlorenceMiglio1,809 France 1, 60931 miles = 1 kilometre. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSash
he Via Praenestina to Palestrina (the ancient Praeneste); Tiburtina to Tivoli; Ostiensis to Ostia; Laurentina to Laurentum, south of Ostia; Salaria, etc. Under Julius Caesar the capital of the Empire was in complete communication with all the principal cities by paved road. During the last African war a paved road was constructed through Spain and Gaul to the Alps. These roads connected the capital with Savoy, Dauphine, and Provence, Germany, all parts of Spain, Gaul, Constantinople, Hungary, Macedonia, and the mouths of the Danube. On the other sides of the intervening waters these roads were continued in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, England, Asia, and Africa. The Roman roads were distinguished by the names Via, Actus, Iter, Semita, Trames, Diverticulum, Divertium, Callais, etc. The Via was the best, and had a width of 8 Roman feet. The Vioe Militari and other important roads in the neighborhood of Rome had a double width, 16 Roman feet, equal to 15 feet 6 inches Eng
us. A mechanical arrangement to cleanse wool before shearing. Fig. 4952 shows a form of animal shower-bath used in Hungary for this purpose. The sheep are soaked in a stream until the grease and dirty covering of the wool are loosened. The srthwest America, Alaska, the Aleutian Isles, and of China. The goods are exported to America, Russia, China, Turkey, to Hungary and the Austrian States, to England, France, and Italy, a considerable quantity also remaining for use in Germany. Th Copenhagen are made of a concrete of broken stone and hydraulic mortar. The sluice of Francis Joseph on the Danube, in Hungary, is built entirely of concrete. This work forms a reservoir, the bottom and the sides of which consist of one piece. Irs, and dictated a humiliating peace. About this time Charlemagne was subduing the Slavi of the Elbe and the Avars of Hungary. The king of the Franks at Aix-la-Chapelle received from the great Haroun of Bagdad presents, consisting of the keys of
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