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, for similar reasons, has long been prevalent in Persia, Asia Minor, and Greece; and in Scotland, during the season when the heather is in bloom, many hives are annually carried to the heaths from districts not in their immediate vicinity. In Poland, the bees are transported in large colonies from their winter-quarters to their summer pasture, and back again when the weather becomes inclement. The objects principally held in view in the manifold attempted improvements in beehives are the to mean polishing, from the derived name of the material which is used in applying the polishing material. Buff-leather. A strong oil-leather prepared from the hide of the buffalo, elk, or ox. It is so named from the buffe, or wild bull, of Poland and Hungary. Formerly it was largely used for armor. It was said to be pistol-shot proof, and capable of turning the edge of a sword. It was tanned soft and white. Its place is now filled by the leather of cow-skins for a common, and of the A
for every six feet of glass, as much for every 120 square feet of wall or ceiling, and as much also for every six cubic feet of air escaping per minute by ventilation. See grate; fireplace. Heat′ing—pan. 1. A flat pan with stirrers, in which linseed meal is warmed before being bagged and pressed. 2. The first pan into which sugar-water of the maple, or the juice of the sugar-cane, is warmed before dipping or running into the evaporator. Heat′ing—stove. The stove of Russia, Poland, and Northern Germany consists of a combustionchamber and a number of reverting flues in which the heated current gradually parts with its caloric. The fire-chamber is surrounded by a good non-conductor of heat, and the heated products of combustion are retained within the stove as long as possible, in order to communicate the greater part of their heat to the stove, and thence to the air of the room. This is effected by an arrangement similar to that shown at A (Fig. 2474), in which th
nt, shark, and rhinoceros skins also find their way to the tan-vat and a market. 1. Morocco leather is made from goat and kid skins, a peculiar grain being given to the surface. 2. Chamois, shammy, shamoy, or shamois leather was originally prepared from the skin of the chamois, but the skins of other goats, and even of sheep, are now dressed in the soft manner, and furnish skins for polishing, for gloves, and other purposes. 3. Buff-leather is so named from the buffe or wild bull of Poland and Hungary. It was used for armor, and tanned soft and white. It is yet used for cartridge-boxes and saber-belts in Europe. 4. Whang is tough leather made from skins of calves, dogs, ground-hogs, etc. It is used for bagstrings, whip-crackers, belt-lacing, and other occasional purposes. 5. Russet is leather finished except the coloring and polishing. In this condition tanned hides are stored, so as to be completed in any desired manner as the demand may suggest. 6. Roan; a leathe
s 1,200 gallons of gas into a cylinder 24 inches long and 6 inches in diameter; or over 100 gallons into a cylinder 12 inches long, 3 1/2 in diameter. The pressure is about 800 pounds to the square inch at 60°. It is shipped in chilled wrought-iron bottles with steel faucets. Nob. A head; a knob. (Artillery.) The plate under the swing-bed for the head of an elevating screw. No′bert's test-plate. F. Nobert, a manufacturer of optical instruments, residing at Barth, Pomerania, has, during the last twenty-five years, been renowned for producing the finest rulings on glass which have hitherto been executed. These rulings are used for two purposes; as a test of the defining power of microscopic objectives, and as a means of determining the wave-lengths of the undulations of the several portions of the solar spectrum. Those intended for microscopic use are known as Nobert's test-plates. They are executed on the under surface of a piece of exceedingly thin glass
re. Kilometre1,093.6 GenoaMile (post)8,527 GermanyMile (15 to 1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph. (Gearing.) An instrument for marki
dern. This, perhaps, is the pioneer of sulky plows and buggy plows, as we of the West call them. o is from Strutt's plates of ancient dresses, and indicates the appearance of the Anglo-Saxon plow and plowman of the eighth century. From the foregoing and those shown in the next figure, and a comparison of others for which we have no room here, it appears that the ancient Egyptian, Etruscan, Syrian, and Greek plows were equal to the modern plows of the South of France, part of Austria, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, Persia, Arabia, India, Ceylon, and China. The last thirty years may have worked a partial change, but not sufficient to invalidate the general truth of the statement. The ancient Etruscan plow, for instance, was probably as good an implement as the one now used by the peasantry of the Arno, — the same territory. In Fig. 3822, a is a group from Beni-Hassan, and of about the date of Osirtasen, who is considered by Wilkinson to be contemporary with Joseph; he who s
arts to Caramba wax a straw color; to elemi, a dirty yellow; to mastic and sandarach, a light brown; it does not affect the others. Ammonia is indifferent to amber, dammar, shellac, elemi, and Caramba wax; copal, sandarach and mastic become soft, and finally dissolve; while rosin will dissolve at once. It is not difficult by means of these reactions to test the different resins for their purity. gum-resins. Common Name.Botanical Name.Native Place.Quality, Use, etc. AmberPrussia, Poland, etc.Found in the mines, rivers, and sea-coasts of Prussia. Used in varnish and for mouth-pieces of pipes. AmmoniacumDorema ammoniacumPersia, etcUsed as a stimulant in medicine. Anime or AnimiHymenaea courbarilBrazilUsed for varnish. The Indian kind known in commerce as Indian copal. Vateria indicaIndia AsphalteTrinidad, Dead Sea, etcForms a basis of black varnishes, as Japan black, etc. Used with sand for paying material. Affords petroleum or rock oil. AssafoetidaNarthex assafoeti
spear-shafts. For a dissertation on the spears of the ancients, see article Hasta, in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, The spear was the principal weapon of the Macedonian phalanx. The lance was introduced from Tartary into Poland, and thence found its way into the army of Frederick the Great, and into the Austrian service, where its name (ulan, from Turkish oglan, a youth) indicates its derivation. See lance 2. A fish-gig. 3. The long transverse pieces fixed transng on a regular route for carrying passengers. Stage-coach. A vehicle for passengers running on a regular route. Stage-coaches appear to have been introduced into Britain by Henry Anderson, who, about 1610, brought them from Stralsund, Pomerania, and was granted a patent for the privilege of running them between Edinburgh and Leith. Some fourteen or fifteen years afterward they had become known in England. In 1659 the Coventry coach is referred to, and in 1661 the Oxford coach, whic