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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 938 0 Browse Search
William Tecumseh Sherman, Memoirs of General William T. Sherman . 220 0 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 178 0 Browse Search
Horace Greeley, The American Conflict: A History of the Great Rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-65: its Causes, Incidents, and Results: Intended to exhibit especially its moral and political phases with the drift and progress of American opinion respecting human slavery from 1776 to the close of the War for the Union. Volume I. 148 0 Browse Search
C. Edwards Lester, Life and public services of Charles Sumner: Born Jan. 6, 1811. Died March 11, 1874. 96 0 Browse Search
Colonel William Preston Johnston, The Life of General Albert Sidney Johnston : His Service in the Armies of the United States, the Republic of Texas, and the Confederate States. 92 0 Browse Search
William Hepworth Dixon, White Conquest: Volume 1 88 0 Browse Search
Frederick H. Dyer, Compendium of the War of the Rebellion: Regimental Histories 66 0 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 64 0 Browse Search
William Hepworth Dixon, White Conquest: Volume 2 64 0 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for California (California, United States) or search for California (California, United States) in all documents.

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ove is in a gently sloping valley, heavily timbered, situated on the divide or ridge between the San Antonio branch of the Stanislaus River, in latitude 38° north and longitude 120° 10′ west, and 5,200 feet above the level of the sea; here, within an area of about eighty acres, and high above the surrounding trees of the forest, can be seen the stately heads of these evergreen forest giants, the Sequoia gigantea. These trees are now growing in many parts of Great Britain and France, from California cones or burs, and no native trees are equal to them in the rapidity of their growth. Expanding auger. Expansible auger. There are twenty of these trees that will average 25 feet in diameter at the base. One of the largest now standing is called the Mother of the Forest, and has been stripped of its bark 116 feet high, and still measures in circumference at the base 84 feet; 20 feet from the base, 69 feet; 70 feet from the base, 43 feet 6 inches; 116 feet from the base, 39 feet 6
assic lands they lived, and yet live, in the clefts of the rocks. They are new-comers to this hemisphere, and with us live in a wild state in hollow trees. In California, it is said, they have taken to the cliffs. A sawed-off section of a hollow log is known in the West and South as a gum, possibly from the use of a log of the t when the English cruisers destroyed the commerce of France, and cut her off from her sugar-producing colonies. It is now being tried in Illinois, Utah, and California. Be-lay′ing-pin. (Nautical.) A stout pin in the side of a vessel or round the masts, used for fastening or belaying ropes. There are several contrivaluice-pit. Buddle. Buddles of different construction are known as flat, round, hand, rotating, concave. Many of the contrivances for gold-washing, used in California and known by technical names, may be called buddles. The rockers, long-toms, and sluices act in this manner. The buddle represented is used in Cornwall, Engla
r. 2. (Mining.) The gravel cemented by clay, which lies next to the bed-rock of the ancient stream, but is now buried beneath a mass of lava and gravel-drift, sometimes many hundreds of feet in depth. This auriferous stratum is reached by timbering, draining, and hoisting, as in other underground operations, or the overlying deposits by hydraulic mining, which consists in washing away the superincumbent mass. This system is principally practiced in Sierra Nevada and Placer Counties, California. The cement of these deep placers is crushed by stamps, and the free gold collected by sluices or other means. See Professor Raymond's Mines, mills, and furnaces. 3. (Metallurgy.) a. The brown deposit in the precipitation tank, wherein the soluble chloride of gold, obtained by the chlorination process, is deposited by the addition of sulphate of iron to the solution. b. The material in which the metal is imbedded in the cementing. Furnace (which see). Cemen-ta′tion. (Met
owing in from the desert. Ninetysix million cubic yards of earth have been taken out; and there is left to-day a canal 90 miles long, 328 feet wide at the surface, and 74 feet wide at the bottom, and 26 feet deep throughout. See dredgingmachine. The practice adopted in the United States, in France, in England, and Holland is to mix such earth in situ and pump it up, mud, earth, sand, and all, — and pour it into lighters or directly upon the land adjacent. The hydraulic mining of California is by means of powerful jets of water projected against the banks of drift, the debris of former periods of glacial and fluvial action. See auger; ditching-machine; dredging-machine; scraper; well-boring. Number of Cubic Feet of various Earths in a Ton. Loose earth24 Coarse sand18.6 Clay18.6 Earth with gravel17.8 Clay with gravel14.4 Common soil15.6 2. A dentist's instrument for removing the carious portion of a tooth. They are of various forms and sizes, straight, curved
m both sides simultaneously, and so on. It would appear that the contrivers have dropped but few trees, or that they have profited but little by their experience. Not content with the sequoia trees which lay prostrate in the Calaveras grove, California, some enterprising vandals determined to fell one, which they did by using pump-augers, boring all around towards the center. The tree was 92 feet in circumference and 300 feet in hight. It stood so plumb that when it was cut clear by the augevious to blasting. Flume. A chute or penstock, open or covered, for the passage of water to a wheel or washer. Used with water-wheels and gold-washers of various kinds. A penstock. The illustration shows a flume crossing a valley in California, uniting the feeder canal on one ridge with the distributing canal of another ridge. Flume near Smartsville, Yuba County, California. Flu′or-o-type. (Photography.) A process into which fluoric acid enters in the shape of fluorate of
noxidizable, soft metal. Its uses are for coin, plate, ornaments, and articles of luxury. Its principal sources are California, Australia, the western coast of Africa, and the Ural. It is a very widely disseminated metal, but is only found in par of from six to seven pounds is employed. Gold-min′ing. The different modes of collecting gold in the placers of California — and the same is true of some other places, Australia, for instance — are familiarly known as panning, winnowing, crader of pay dirt. Hydraulic-mining by jet and sluice-boxes has given rise to some of the greatest engineering works of California. A series of boxes about 14 inches in length and 3 feet wide, called sluice-boxes, are fitted together at the ends so eroga, by the American Graphite Company. A large deposit of the granulated graphite was supposed to have been found in California, and a favorable report was made upon it by one of the European savants, but there is no real graphite in the mixture; <
one straight and one cross handle, and a turned-over edge. It is used in scraping hides and reducing them to an even thickness. (Fr. couteau à revers.) 3. (Coopering.) A knife for cutting the chamfer of the head of a cask. Heading-machine. Head′ing—ma-chine′. 1. (Agriculture.) A machine for cutting off the heads of grain in the field, instead of harvesting the whole straw. The machine was tried awhile in Illinois, but its use is believed to have been abandoned except in California. The machine is now always associated with a traveling thrasher, the ripe heads of grain being cut off, thrashed, and bagged. These machines vary in their cutting apparatus; some have the reciprocat- ing knife usual with reapers, a reel sweeping the heads into a well, from which they are raised by a conveyor to the thrashing-cylinder, and thence pass to the sieves and fan. Another favorite form is a comb with long teeth of a lance shape; the comb presents its teeth towards the grain,
Schiefergebirge, and is found in Hungary, many parts of Germany, in China, Japan, Mexico, Honduras, Columbia, Peru, and California. The modes of obtaining mercury by the decomposition and distillation of cinnabar have been very imperfect and wastehat it can be treated at any length. The extensive quicksilver mine of New Almaden is twelve miles from San Jose in California, and has had the benefit of energy, skill, and capital in its development. A good description of the place and the wor Greeks 700 B. C., and were celebrated in the time of Pliny. The mines of Idria, the Palatinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich. The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili. In the furnace th See condenser. See previous article. The latter is the plan adopted at Idria in Austria, the former in Bavaria and California. Dr. Ure's retort-furnace, erected at Landsberg in Bavaria, resembles the apparatus for the distillation of coalgas.
g, the furrow-slice broken. e is extra wide plowing with broken furrow. Gang-plows are now used in some of the Western States, also to a large extent in England. They are simply four, six, or eight plowshares fastened to a stout frame. In California, on the lighter soils, eight horses draw a seven-gang plow, and one such team is counted on to put in six hundred and forty acres of wheat in the sowing season; or from eight to ten acres per day. A seed-sower is fastened in front of the plow.e of the latter metal is often found in it. Samples of Ceylon plumbago are shown containing 98.55 pure carbon. See graphite. Plumbago was formerly a monopoly in the Cumberland mines, but the mines of Russia, Ceylon, Ticonderoga, Greenland, California, Spain, and Bohemia have fortunately arrested imposition. See pencil. Plumb-bob. Plumb-bob. A conoidally shaped piece of metal suspended by a cord attached to its upper end, and used for determining vertical, or, in connection with a
0 inches, diminishing to 1/3 of that amount and less eastward of the mountains. Intensely heated plains, by elevating the temperature of the winds passing over them, even though saturated with vapor on their arrival, tend to prevent precipitation. Thus the desert of Sahara, Egypt, Arabia, Southern Persia, and the great desert of Gobi in Central Asia, constitute a rainless tract embracing a considerable portion of the earth's circumference. The tablelands of Thibet and Mexico, parts of California, and the great North American desert are also either entirely or comparatively rainless. Local causes frequently determine the amount of rain which may fall in a short time at a given spot. This not unfrequently amounts to a large fraction of the annual precipitation. At London, on the 27th of November, 1845, 6 1/2 inches, more than 1/4 of the total annual amount, fell within 24 hours. At Joyense, in the department of the Ardeche, France, 31.173 inches have been known to fall in
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