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oncern to them, the Confederate Government held them to a rigid accountability, more of which will appear hereafter. It is difficult to over-estimate the consequences to the Federal arms of the surrender of Donelson. The material results were great; but, great as they were, the moral effects were still greater. An army was demolished; nearly one-half of the Confederate soldiers in Tennessee were killed, captured, or scattered; the line of defense was broken, so as to open the whole of Kentucky, and a great part of Tennessee, to the Federal arms; Bowling Green, Nashville, Columbus-all were turned; and the valley of the Cumberland was rendered untenable. But, mighty as was the disaster, its consequences on the minds of the parties to the civil strife were still more ominous to the Confederate cause. Where now were the impregnable fortifications, said to be guarded by 100,000 desperate Southerners; where now the boasted prowess of troops, who were to quail at no odds; where the in
work at Bowling Green. evacuation of Bowling Green. the March. Kentucky brigade. precautions. Donelson surrendered. at Nashville. Munf held by Generals Johnston, Beauregard, and Hardee. Bowling Green, Kentucky, February 7, 1862. At a meeting held to-day at my quarters (Cov1861. When leaving his headquarters at Bowling Green, in the State of Kentucky, having then seen and spoken with him for the first time, ths of General Albert Sidney Johnston, in the town of Bowling Green, Kentucky, and in the presence of then Colonel (now General) John S. Bowen, to both the South and yourself. I then sketched the connection of Kentucky with the Confederacy; that its Governor and Council were then unde Senators to our Congress; that they must flee with him, and leave Kentucky with no organized representation of the Southern cause on its soilt were begun. But these could not be carried out, and the soil of Kentucky abandoned to the enemy, without exciting the liveliest emotions of
Letter from General Beauregard to General Johnston. Bowling Green, Kentucky, February 12, 1862. General: By the fall of Fort Henry the enemeral A. S. Johnston, commanding Western Department, Bowling Green, Kentucky. It was the easier for General Johnston to adopt this resoluti, hesitate? We cannot survive the permanent loss of Tennessee and Kentucky for the war. They must be immediately retaken, at all hazards, or e debates. Map. In response to the attempt of Mr. Moore, of Kentucky, to put in a plea for General Johnston, Mr. Foote, of Tennessee, aetter. We have suffered great anxiety because of recent events in Kentucky and Tennessee; and I have been not a little disturbed by the repetfeating some of his columns, to drive him from the soil as well of Kentucky as of Tennessee. We are deficient in arms, wanting in discipliusiasm, as we imagined and hoped, but hostility, was manifested in Kentucky. Believing it to be of the greatest moment to protract the campai
sippi and Tennessee. Though vested with the direction of affairs both east and west of the river, so distant and distinct was the scene of operations in Missouri that he was only able to maintain a general control there. While the armies in Kentucky, like wary swordsmen, watched every opposing movement, with only an occasional thrust and parry, until the final rush and death-grapple, the struggle in Missouri resembled those stage-combats in which many and often aimless blows are given, the th very considerable accuracy and promptness of General Johnston's movements after he left Shelbyville, showing that he had greatly improved his means of information, and that the retreating army could not so effectually mask its movements as in Kentucky. In forming a plan of campaign, there was some diversity of opinion between Halleck and Buell as to details; but the main idea of dividing the Confederacy, by cutting the Memphis & Charleston Railroad near the Great Bend of the Tennessee, wa
Mississippi River and the Alleghany range. Notwithstanding the unpopularity which assailed him after the evacuation of Kentucky, he was continued in command, and transferred his army in November, 1862, to Middle Tennessee, and December 31st of thatJohnston to attack with the forces then available. In a period of four weeks, fragments of commands from Bowling Green, Kentucky, under Hardee; Columbus, Kentucky, under Polk; and Pensacola, Mobile, and New Orleans, under Bragg; with such new leviesd his purpose to Colonel Munford, that officer remonstrated with him, saying that he appeared to have lost Tennessee and Kentucky. This battle may regain them, and reestablish your jeoparded fame; yet you, on such an occasion,, would invite another t The following is from Colonel Munford's address at Memphis: When General Johnston terminated his retreat from Kentucky, at Corinth, he found General Beauregard in command of a small army, to which he united his own. All available troops we
ey had cleared the way. To this cause of delay was added the confusion arising from any change of orders with raw troops as to routes in the labyrinth of roads in that vicinity. Hardee's corps, moving on the Ridge road under its methodical commander, assisted by the ardor and energy of Hindman and Cleburne, moved with greater celerity than the other troops. But something of this was due to their apprenticeship in war, under General Johnston's own eye and inspiration, on outpost duty in Kentucky and in the long and toilsome march from Bowling Green to Corinth, which had inured them to the hardships and difficulties of this kind of service. Polk's corps was at this time superior to the others in its transportation and in its experience under fire, and Bragg's in drill and order. Each had its own excellence; but all were soon to be welded to a common temper in the white heat of sectional-war. But at this time the whole army was new, and not yet moulded into a consistent whole.
n thousand, and the levies from all quarters which were hastening to Corinth, would have given General Johnston nearly sixty thousand men. Duke then goes on to consider the results, which he concludes must have transferred the seat of war to Kentucky, perhaps to the Northwestern States. Finally, I shall take the liberty of quoting Colonel Jordan in reply to himself ( Life of Forrest, page 134). In giving the deeds of Forrest and his men in the fray, he says: They assisted in the cahen a word rudely awakens him to the hard realities, it may be even to the cruel afflictions, of actual life. The Confederates saw Grant crushed, annihilated; Buell checked, retreating; the tide of war rolled back and pouring across the border; Kentucky, Missouri, aroused, instinct with martial fervor, and springing into the ranks with their sisters of the South; renewed prestige, restored confidence, increased credit, strength, and means of warfare; peace, prosperity, and independence; and a y
the enemy. Sherman, in his advance toward the close of the battle, saw, from his position on McCook's right, the latter part of his contest in front of Shiloh Church. He says: Here I saw for the first time the well-ordered and compact Kentucky forces of General Buell, whose soldierly movement gave confidence to our newer and less-disciplined forces. Here I saw Willich's regiment advance upon a point of water-oaks and thicket, behind which I knew the enemy was in great strength, and e were killed or disabled, including the commander of the forces, whose high qualities will be greatly missed in the momentous campaign impending. I deeply regret to record also the death of the Hon. George M. Johnson, Provisional Governor of Kentucky, who went into action with the Kentucky troops, and continually inspired them by his words and example. Having his horse shot under him on Sunday, he entered the ranks of a Kentucky regiment on Monday, and fell mortally wounded toward the close
lutions which locates the fight in Tennessee. Mr. Davis, of Mississippi: That battle was fought in Tennessee, very near the Mississippi line. Mr. Moore, of Kentucky: Mr. Speaker, I do not arise for the purpose of detaining the House by any protracted remarks in support of the resolutions offered by the gentleman from the Confederate army from Bowling Green. Nor shall I advert to the detailed events which marked the progress of that army, as it swung slowly over the hills of Kentucky, and through the forests of Tennessee, amid the inclemency of wintry weather, to the memorable encampment at Corinth. But, sir, during those weeks of gloom, a be so near being seized, the vast, gigantic, comprehensive strategy, which might have resulted in the complete overthrow of the Federal army, and the recovery of Kentucky and Tennessee. I will not say that it would have changed the result; I will not say that, had our admirable soldier been spared, the Confederacy would now be nu
he most dangerous enemy we had in Tennessee, if not in the whole South, and that his death would be a public benefaction; that he knew just where he was in Southeastern Kentucky, and that he could be easily disposed of at a trifling cost of money. The general rose up and said: Sir, the Government which I serve meets its enemies ine expedition against the Mormons in Utah. Thus he brought to the Southern cause a civil and military experience far surpassing that of any other leader, Born in Kentucky, descended from an honorable colonial race, connected by marriage with influential families in the West, where his life had been passed, he was peculiarly fitteds, he had passed through the furnace of ignorant newspapers, hotter than that of the Babylonian tyrant. Commanding some raw, unequipped forces at Bowling Green, Kentucky, the accustomed American exaggeration represented him as at the head of a vast army, prepared and eager for conquest. Before time was given him to organize and
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