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in 1630, the Company of Massachusetts Bay transferred itself from London to Massachusetts, bringing its governor, John Winthrop, and its charter, the movement was sohen the old woman threw her camp-stool at the bishop's head, the charter of Massachusetts was safe for many a year to come; but before that time the settlers had mucIn the summer of 1632, a congregation from Braintree in Essex came over to Massachusetts and began to settle near Mount Wollaston, where they left the name of Brainmoned Mrs. Hutchinson to the New Town, and sentenced her to banishment from Massachusetts, with many of her friends and kinsfolk. In view of these proceedings, Shepthey dreaded Indians, and in 1646 a synod of delegates from the colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven was assembled at Cambridge, in order of the Council, and their grandson was Jonathan Belcher, royal governor of Massachusetts and of New Jersey. In 1671, at the northeast corner of Mount Auburn and Bo
one of the fundamental parts which constituted the State of Massachusetts, would attract the attention of the most casual obas here that the convention to frame a constitution for Massachusetts held its sessions in 1779. It was here that Lafayette , we learn that Stoughton (the first of that name) and Massachusetts and Hollis were saved through the exertions of citizens to the Declaration of Independence was accomplished in Massachusetts through the town organizations. In this work Cambridge767, the Townshend duties were laid by Parliament. The Massachusetts representatives sought cooperation both in England and our lives and fortunes to support them in the measure. Massachusetts was already practically under a government of its own, ote. The convention which framed the constitution of Massachusetts that was afterwards adopted met in Cambridge September 1786, paralyzed for the time being the progress of western Massachusetts, but Cambridge declined to participate in the conve
rd Square chapter is full of the former and rarer quality. Charles Lamb's celebrated description of the Christ Church hospital and school of his boyhood does not give more of the flavor of an older day. Those who refer to that chapter will see at the head a vignette of Harvard Square in 1822, taken from a sketch made at the period. It seems at first sight to have absolutely nothing in common with the Harvard Square of the present day, but to belong rather to some small hamlet of western Massachusetts. Yet it recalls with instantaneous vividness the scenes of my youth, and is the very spot through which Holmes, and Lowell, and Richard Dana, and Story the sculptor, and Margaret Fuller Ossoli, walked daily to the post-office, or weekly to the church. The sketch was taken in the year before my own birth, but remained essentially unchanged for ten years thereafter, the population of the whole town having increased only from 3295 in 1820 to 6072 in 1830. The trees on the right overs
ption of an old Cambridge home now passed away: the following extracts are made from it. My birthplace, the home of my childhood and earlier and later boyhood, has within a few months passed out of the ownership of my family into the hands of that venerable Alma Mater who seems to have renewed her youth, and has certainly repainted her dormitories. This was written in 1872. In truth, when I last revisited that familiar scene and looked upon the flammantia moenia of the old halls, Massachusetts with the dummy clock-dial, Harvard with the garrulous belfry, little Holden with the sculptured unpunishable cherubs over its portal, and the rest of my early brick-and-mortar acquaintances, I could not help saying to myself that I had lived to see the peaceable establishment of the Red Republic of Letters. The estate was the third lot of the eighth Squadron (whatever that might be), and in the year 1707 was allotted in the distribution of undivided lands to Mr. ffox, the Reverend Jab
d the election to proceed. It resulted in the complete defeat of Vane's party, and the youthful governor, disappointed and crestfallen, shortly after sailed for England, never to return. Vane was the youngest person ever elected governor of Massachusetts, having been but twenty-four years old at the time. On his return to England, he joined the party opposed to King Charles, and, soon after the Restoration, was tried for high treason and beheaded. It is expected that an oak will be planted rington to Springfield, where fresh oxen were provided. The roads were bad, and the train could not proceed without snow. Fortunately, the roads soon became passable, and the strange procession wound its tedious way through the hills of western Massachusetts down to the sea. The cannon were too cumbersome for field use, but were especially adapted for siege-guns, which Washington stood greatly in need of for the seven miles of redoubts around Boston. After the British evacuated Boston, the c
ise becoming a city. Before this charter agitation of 1846, there had been no new cities in Massachusetts since the incorporation of Salem and Lowell in 1836. But following the example of Boston's ar. With the exception of the three early ventures of Boston, Salem, and Lowell, the era of Massachusetts municipalities may be said to have begun in 1846. The rapid increase in the population an municipal service. Considered comparatively with the present efficiency of other cities in Massachusetts and in the other States, the showing which Cambridge makes is also most gratifying. But thi of our mayors have been New England men, and that of the entire number sixteen were born in Massachusetts. Two of the number were born in Cambridge, and five were Boston boys. Sixteen were born under municipal charter government were familiar in early life only with the simple workings of Massachusetts cities in the period before the war. Three of our mayors were born in the eighteenth century
t is said, walked from Woburn to Cambridge to hear Professor Winthrop lecture. After Winthrop came Rev. Mr. Williams; then Professor Farrar, a remarkable lecturer. Up to the year 1830, astronomy and physics were the only sciences to which much attention was paid in Cambridge. There were no laboratories even in chemistry. In 1816, Dr. Jacob Bigelow was appointed Rumford professor and lecturer on the application of science to the useful arts. He was perhaps the earliest citizen of Massachusetts to recognize the importance of scientific training for young men who proposed to enter into the professions which require technical knowledge of the sciences. It is to him, I believe, that the community owes the primal impulse which culminated in the establishment of technical schools in America. He was a broad-minded physician, and represented a type of which Cambridge has had remarkable examples. Daniel Treadwell succeeded him in the Rumford professorship. Professor Treadwell was a
s, and must assess the expense of the materials upon the abutting lands, which then become chargeable for the payment of the amount. The board of aldermen fixes the number and compensation of policemen, and establishes general regulations for their government. It also has the power to grant and revoke licenses for which provision is made by law or ordinance. The school committee, of which the mayor is ex officio chairman without a vote, performs all such duties as the school committees in Massachusetts towns are required by law to perform. The essential difference between the form of city government of to-day and that in vogue from the time Cambridge became a city, up to 1892, is in the assignment of executive power. Formerly, it was given to the mayor and board of aldermen or to the city council, and was exercised through their committees. Now, it is given to the mayor, and is exercised through the boards and heads of departments, under his general supervision and control.
,000. The school, since its foundation, has been supported wholly by Mr. Rindge. The city Hall. The architects of the city hall were Messrs. Longfellow, Alden & Harlow. A suitable site was purchased by the city government, located on Main Street, and extending from Bigelow to Inman streets. Ground was broken February 1, 1889, and the corner-stone was laid, with appropriate ceremonies, on May 15, 1889, by Most Worshipful Henry Endicott, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Masons of Massachusetts. On December 9, 1890, the new city hall, finished and furnished, was formally transferred to the city, with exercises simple in character, in accordance with the wish of Mr. Rindge. The building is of quarry-faced stone, and stands well back from the street, with terraces in front. It is 157 feet long, 92 feet deep on the sides, but has a recessed court 32 by 37 feet at the back. The front wall is broken by a beautiful tower 27 feet square, which rises 154 feet from its base. Th
ethical values, as this phenomenal state of things indicates. Furthermore, there is something nobly inspiring about it, and that quite independently of neighborhood. I have seen, for example, many audiences beyond Cambridge, and even beyond Massachusetts, gathered to listen to some account of what has been happening among us, who—when this point of the description was reached, and the striking circumstance was held forth of a great and heterogeneous city bowing to the sway of such a phrase asquestions having to do with it, and that greater abomination, the organized, covetous, unscrupulous traffic, which, making merchandise of human souls for its own aggrandizement, works the most fearful evils in almost all dense populations. Massachusetts, by her local-option law of 1881, had been giving her cities and towns the opportunity to throw off this paralysis, and many of them had taken advantage of it, including our border city of Somerville, which, for some years, had excluded the s
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