odorus is understood to have lived in Samos before it was merged into the Greek Empire, which took place when it was conquered by Athens, 440 B. C. A work on iron and steel written in 1550 does not mention any use for cast-iron; castings in bronze and brass had been known and used for certainly forty centuries. The early mode of making cannon was by fitting iron bars together and hooping them, but they were subsequently cast of bronze.
British iron was cast by Ralph Page and Peter Baude in Sussex in the year 1543.
In 1612, 1613, and 1619, patents were granted in England for the use of coal in iron-casting.
The first two were unsuccessful, and the last would appear to have been successful, as it provoked the usual results, — a mob tore down the establishment.
The writer does not recollect any account of the tearing down of a shop where a supposed perpetualmotion engine was domiciled.
Emmanuel Swedenborg, in his Regnum Subterraneum (1734), credits the English workmen with the f
hy dowlas, says the Bard of Avon.
（Mining.) The ventilating-shaft of a mine, down which air passes to the workings; as opposed to the up-cast.
（Nautical.) A rope for hauling down a staysail, jib, or other fore-and-aft sail.
With staysails it passes along the stay through the cringles of the sail, and is attached to the upper corner.
A turf-paring plow, used in England, where the rolling treeless tracts are called downs. These tracts in Sussex are the homes of the Southdown sheep.
(A. S. Dun, dune, a hill.) The sand-banks which lie upon the sea-shores of Holland are called dunes; hence Dunchurch in England, Dankirk in the Low Countries.
Hence also the Downs, the famous anchorage off the coast of Kent, England, where the Goodwin Sands form a breakwater: —
For whilst our pinnace anchors in the Downes.
2 Henry VI., IV. 1.
One form of the