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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Adams, John Quincy, 1767- (search)
distinct English colonies, along the margin of the shore of the North American continent; contiguously situated, but chartered by adventurers of characters variously diversified, including sectarians, religious and political, of all the classes which for the two preceding centuries had agitated and divided the people of the British islands, and with then were intermingled the descendants of Hollanders, Swedes, Germans, and French fugitives from the persecution of the revoker of the Edict of Nantes. In the bosoms of this people, thus heterogeneously composed, there was burning, kindled at different furnaces, but all furnaces of affliction, one clear, steady flame of liberty. Bold and darling enterprise, stubborn endurance of privation, unflinching intrepidity in facing danger, and inflexible adherence to conscientious principle had steeled to energetic and unyielding hardihood the characters of the primitive settlers of all these colonies. Since that time two or three generations
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cottineau, Denis Nicholas 1746-1798 (search)
Cottineau, Denis Nicholas 1746-1798 Naval officer; born in Nantes, France, in 1746; became a lieutenant in the French navy; and in the battle between the American squadron under Paul Jones and the British fleet under Sir Richard Pearson, Sept. 23, 1779, commanded the American ship Pallas. Cottineau is mentioned in high terms by James Fenimore Cooper in his History of the Navy of the United States. He died in Savannah, Ga., Nov. 29, 1798. cotton, John
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), De Lancey, ÉTienne 1663-1741 (search)
De Lancey, ÉTienne 1663-1741 Merchant; born in Caen, France, Oct. 24, 1663; fled to Holland on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes; and went thence to England and became a British subject. He landed in New York, June 7, 1686; became a merchant and amassed a large fortune; and was at all times a publicspirited citizen. In 1700 he built the De Lancey house, which subsequently became known as the Queen's head and Fraunce's Tavern. In the large room, originally Mrs. De Lancey's drawing-room, Washington bade farewell to the officers of the Army of the Revolution. He died in New York City, Nov. 18, 1741
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Edict of Nantes, the, (search)
Edict of Nantes, the, An edict promulgated by Henry IV. of France, which gave toleration to the Protestants in feuds, civil and religious, and ended the religious wars of the country. It was published April 13, 1598, and was confirmed by Louis XIII. in 1610, after the murder of his father; also by Louis XIV. in 1652; but it was revoked by him, Oct. 22, 1685. It was a great state blunder, for it deprived France of 500,000 of her best citizens, who fled into Germany, England, and America, and gave those countries the riches that flow from industry, skill, and sobriety. They took with them to England the art of silk-weaving, and so gave France an important rival in that branch of industry.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Everett, Edward, 1794-1865 (search)
were grouped into states under stable governments; the lingering traditions of the ancient animosities gradually died away, and now Tuscan and Lombard, Sardinian and Neapolitan, as if to shame the degenerate sons of America, are joining in one cry for a united Italy. In France, not to go back to the civil wars of the League in the sixteenth century and of the Fronde in the seventeenth; not to speak of the dreadful scenes throughout the kingdom which followed the revocation of the edict of Nantes; we have, in the great revolution which commenced at the close of the last century, seen the blood-hounds of civil strife let loose as rarely before in the history of the world. The reign of terror established at Paris stretched its bloody Briarean arms to every city and village in the land; and if the most deadly feuds which ever divided a people had the power to cause permanent alienation and hatred, this surely was the occasion. But far otherwise the fact. In seven years from the fal
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Franklin, Benjamin 1706-1790 (search)
y to destruction. You have begun to burn our towns and murder our people. Look upon your hands; they are stained with the blood of your relations! You and I were long friends; you are now my enemy, and I am yours.— B. Franklin. Late in the autumn of 1776 Dr. Franklin was sent as a diplomatic agent to France in the ship Reprisal. The passage occupied thirty days, during which that vessel had been chased by British cruisers and had taken two British brigantines as prizes. He landed at Nantes on Dec. 7. Europe was surprised, for no notice had been given of his coming. His fame was world-wide. The courts were filled with conjectures. The story was spread in England that he was a fugitive for safety. Burke said, I never will believe that he is going to conclude a long life, which has brightened every hour it has continued, with so foul and dishonorable a flight. On the Continent it was rightly concluded that he was on an important mission. To the French people he spoke frank
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Huguenots. (search)
ers. He arrived in Florida in the spring of 1568, and was joined by the natives in an attack upon two forts on the St. John occupied by the Spaniards below Fort Carolina. The strong places were captured, and the whole of the Spaniards were slaughtered, excepting a few whom De Gourges hanged upon trees, under the words, Not as Spaniards and mariners, but as traitors, robbers, and murderers. Menendez firmly planted a colony at St. Augustine. In 1598 Henry IV., of France, issued an edict at Nantes (see Edict of Nantes) that secured full toleration, civil and religious, for the Huguenots, and there was comparative rest for the Protestants until the death of Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661. Then the Huguenots began to be perse- Indians decorating Ribault's pillar (from an old print). cuted, and in 1685 Louis XIV. revoked the Edict. The fires of intolerance were kindled, and burned so furiously that at least 500,000 Protestants took refuge in foreign lands. In 1705 there was not a singl
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lee, William 1737-1795 (search)
Lee, William 1737-1795 Diplomatist; born in Stratford, Va., in 1737: brother of Richard Henry and Arthur; was agent for Virginia in London, and became a merchant there. The city of London being overwhelmingly Whig in politics, William Lee was elected sheriff of that city and Middlesex county in 1773. In 1775 he was chosen alderman, but on the breaking out of the war in America retired to France. Congress appointed him commercial agent at Nantes at the beginning of 1777, and he was afterwards American minister at The Hague. Mr. Lee was also agent in Berlin and Vienna, but was recalled in 1779. In 1778 Jan de Neufville, an Amsterdam merchant, procured a loan to the Americans from Holland, through his house, and, to negotiate for it, gained permission of the burgomasters of Amsterdam to meet Lee at Aix-la-Chapelle. There they arranged terms for a commercial convention proper to be entered into between the two republics. When Lee communicated this project to the American commis
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Nantes, Edict of (search)
Nantes, Edict of See Edict of Nantes.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Reprisal, the (search)
Reprisal, the The ship that carried Franklin to France, having replenished in the port of Nantes, cruised off the French coast and captured several prizes from the English. The American privateers were permitted to enter French ports in cases of extreme emergency, and there to receive supplies only sufficient for a voyage to their own ports; but the Reprisal continued to cruise off the French coast after leaving port, and captured the English royal packet between Falmouth and Lisbon. With this and five other prizes, she entered the harbor of L'Orient, the captain saying he intended to send them to America. Stormont, the English ambassador to Paris, hurried to Vergennes to demand that the captain, with his crews, cargoes, and ships, should be given up. You have come too late, said the minister; orders have already been sent that the American ship and her prizes must immediately put to sea. the Reprisal continued to cruise in European waters until captured in the summer of 1777.
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