uch larger bells began to be cast.
The Jacqueline, at Paris, cast in 1300, weighed 15,000 pounds; one cast at Paris in 1472 weighed 15,000 pounds; and the bell of Rouen, cast in 1501, weighed over 36,000 pounds.
One of the pieces in my collection which I the most highly value is the silver bell [made by Benvenuto Cellini] with in 1733432,00021.23
Broken in 1737.
Moscow (St. Ivan's)127,830
Westminster ( Big Ben, 1858）30,324
London (Houses of Parliament)30,000
Paris (Notre Dame, 1680）28,6728.67 1/2
Montreal (184in the Middle Ages, and are still used on the Continent of Europe.
One at Strasbourg is 1,300 feet long, and there is another at Cologne.
One across the Seine at Rouen was constructed by Nicolas in 1700.
Boat-bridges, in a military point of view, are classed as ponton-bridges, the pontons or bateaux and the road-bed being tran<
b drives the spade-wheel L′ through the intervention of gearing.
The wheel B is in the advance, and the depth of penetration is regulated at the rear of the frame above the caster-wheel N. The shares M M are removable.
Other forms of spaders have blades thrust out and retracted as the machine advances.
A sea-wall or breakwater.
An artificial construction opposing a barrier to the sea or preventing the denudation of the land thereby.
1. A levee or wall of earth, gabions or carpentry, to prevent the encroachment of water, or to serve as a wharf or jetty.
The structures vary extremely, according to purpose, exposure, and the nature of the foundations.
The more superior class consists of a timber structure strongly braced, founded on piles, filled in with stone, and faced with planking or masonry.
See sea-wall; jetty; breakwater.
The dikes of Holland are the most memorable of their class, and pro
q, from a vase of Sir W. Hamilton's.
r is from an ancient marble bust.
s t are from coins of ancient Italy, and representing heads of Mercury.
In the thirteenth century, Pope Innocent IV.
allowed the cardinals the use of scarlet cloth hats.
The introduction of felt hats is credited to a Swiss, in Paris, in 1410, and in 1440 it is said to have become a common article of wear for travelers.
In 1449, Charles VII.
made his triumphal entry into Rouen, wearing a felt hat lined with red velvet and surmounted with a fine plume of feathers.
This set the fashion, and hats soon superseded the old chaperons and hoods.
Chaucer, who wrote during the latter part of the fourteenth century, represents the merchant as wearing a Flanders beaver hat. This may antedate our Swiss friend mentioned above.
The hats referred to in the reign of Richard II.
（1385) were probably of cloth.
Felt hats are stated by one authority to have been first made
iron piling employed in the construction of wharves at Deptford and Blackwall, England.
The main piles a a have rabbets on each side, into which the sheeting is driven, and are secured at the back by stays and a thick bed of concrete; b is a guide-pile; c, a stay-pile; and d, land-ties.
In driving, a piece of timber two inches thick was placed on each pile to relieve the jar of the ram, which weighed 15 cwt., and was allowed to drop but four feet.
The piles used in extending the quay of Rouen (B) were from 12 to 15 inches thick, and were driven with a monkey of 1,200 pounds falling 20 feet, delivering a blow equal to a pressure of 300,000 pounds. The heads of the piles were cut off 6 feet below low water, and stones were piled in. Caissons were sunk on to the piles, and in them the masonry was constructed.
Each pile was calculated to support 18,633 pounds of masonry, and an
Pile-work. estimated addition of one half for merchandise gave each pile a load of 27,000 pounds.
1864; while the French bicycle of Lallemant was patented in this country in 1866.
Numerous modifications and improvements followed, forming the subjects of patents, a list of some of which is appended.
The speed attained by the swifter kinds of velocipedes averages from 12 to 13 miles an hour; 50 miles in 5 hours may be attained without the rider alighting from his vehicle; 123 miles within 24 hours has been accomplished.
On one occasion, a party of nine, mounted on velocipedes, leaving Rouen early in the morning, arrived at Paris in time for dinner; the distance is 85 miles, and the rate of travel, exclusive of stoppages, was between 10 and 11 miles an hour.
Grades exceeding 1 in 25 are said to be impracticable to the velocipede, and the rider in this case must dismount and lead his factitious steed, which, however, displays great docility on such occasions.
Baron de Drais' velocipede.
Fig 6926, from Stewart's Anecdotes of the steam-engine, published in 1829, illustrates
upon linen, cotton, leather, and other substances, with oil, size, and cements, so as to make them serviceable for hangings and other purposes.
His claim to priority was disputed, and it was stated to have been invented in 1620 by Francois of Rouen, where the business was carried on by father and son till the death of the latter, in 1748.
Wooden blocks for printing the patterns in size were exhibited during the dispute.
Nemetz describes the manufacture of wax-cloth hangings with wool chis artist was inspector of the palace of Luxembourg, was celebrated for his arabesque and grotesque paintings, and had a manufactory of hangings in the palace.
Savary, in his Dictionary of commerce, states that flockhangings were first made at Rouen, but they do not appear to have had a paper backing.
In the early part of the eighteenth century paper-hanging was of such poor quality as only to be used in houses of inferior class, but toward the end of that century the manufacture had attain