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urch windows were generally glazed in the sixteenth century, though there were but few glass windows in private dwellings. Talc, isinglass, horn, oiled paper, and thinly shaved leather were generally used instead of glass throughout the civilized world. Blue glass, colored by the addition of cobalt to the frit, was discovered about 1550 by Christopher Schurer of Platten, Bohemia. Glass was imported into England, A. D. 1177; the manufacture was established in that country, 1557. In Savoy, the same year. Plate-glass was made at Lambeth by Venetian artists, 1673. The British Plate-Glass Company was established 1773. An active manufactory of glass exists at Hebron, in the land of Palestine,—the same Hebron where is the cave of Machpelah, bought by Abraham for a sum of money of Ephron, one of the sons of Heth. The tombs are preserved in rigid seclusion from Jew and Christian; of the latter, not one lives in the town of 5,000 people. Dr. Thomson gives an account of it
ht, and perhaps on account of the fear of the contamination of the fresh water of the river by the salt water of the sea, it may really have been an inclined plane like that which crossed the Isthmus of Corinth some centuries afterward. The sluice preceded the lock in Europe (see canal), and was probably used also in the grand canal of China, built in the ninth century A. D. The canal lock was invented in Italy in the fourteenth century. On the Mount Cenis Railroad, which crossed between Savoy and Italy previous to the completion of the tunnel, the elevation is overcome by a series of inclined planes, with mechanical devices to cause a positive grip upon the rails, instead of depending upon frictional contact for the tractile effect of the motor. The railway tunnel has superseded the mountain road. On the old line of the Pennsylvania Railroad by Hollidaysburg, the reader may have noticed and admired the inclined planes by which the summit and several other gradients were asce
ways; the Via Aemilia extended from Rimini to Piacenza. The smaller ways were the Via Praenestina to Palestrina (the ancient Praeneste); Tiburtina to Tivoli; Ostiensis to Ostia; Laurentina to Laurentum, south of Ostia; Salaria, etc. Under Julius Caesar the capital of the Empire was in complete communication with all the principal cities by paved road. During the last African war a paved road was constructed through Spain and Gaul to the Alps. These roads connected the capital with Savoy, Dauphine, and Provence, Germany, all parts of Spain, Gaul, Constantinople, Hungary, Macedonia, and the mouths of the Danube. On the other sides of the intervening waters these roads were continued in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, England, Asia, and Africa. The Roman roads were distinguished by the names Via, Actus, Iter, Semita, Trames, Diverticulum, Divertium, Callais, etc. The Via was the best, and had a width of 8 Roman feet. The Vioe Militari and other important roads in the ne
f dividing the stuff; d, perforated disk, to prevent the passage of chips or bits of stone; e, Archimedean pipes fitted into a disk of sheet-iron to convey water to the gauze or perforated trommel f; g, slimecistern; h, cistern for receiving the rough stuff; i, slime-outlet, communicating with round buddle or other suitable apparatus; k, outlet for trommel raff, which may be delivered into a sizing cistern. Slime-trommel. Trompe. The water-blowing engine; used as a furnace-blast in Savoy, Carniola, and some parts of America. Water from a reservoir a flows through the pipe b. which is contracted just below the reservoir to divide the stream into a shower, and has oblique perforations at c, through which air enters and is carried down by the water, which impinges upon a plate in the drum d, separating the air which is compressed in the upper part of the drum, flowing through the pipe e to the tuyeres or blast-pipes. At the bottom of the drum d is an orifice for the escape