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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Garcia, Calixto 1836- (search)
d rather than submit to capture. Placing a revolver in his mouth he fired upward. The ball came out at his forehead, and he carried a scar for life. He was taken to Manzanillo in his wounded condition, and when he recovered was sent to Spain. After peace was made in 1878 he was pardoned and returned to Cuba. He did not, however. consider the peace either honorable or binding, and took part in the little war, in which he fought with Maceo. He was compelled to surrender, and was sent to Madrid, where he spent seventeen years under the surveillance of the po- Calixto Garcia. lice. In September, 1895, he crossed the frontier into France, sailed to New York, and on Jan. 26, 1896, planned a filibustering expedition which was successful. Afterwards, while fitting out another expedition, he was arrested by the United States government. He forfeited his bail, and on March 15, 1896, met the Bermuda, a filibustering steamer, off Cape Henlopen, and reached Cuba with sixty-two Cubans,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hay, John 1838- (search)
ed as his assistant private secretary, till 1863, when he joined General Hunter in South Carolina as aide-decamp. In the same year he was appointed assistant adjutant-general, and assigned to the staff of Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore (q. v.), and was subsequently ordered to duty at the White House, where he remained until President Lincoln's assassination. Later he was brevetted colonel of volunteers. In 1865-67 he was secretary of legation in Paris; in 1867-68 at Vienna; and then till 1870 at Madrid. During 1870-75 he was an editorial writer on the New York Tribune; then removed to Cleveland. He was active in the Republican Presidential campaigns of 1876, 1880, and 1884; was first assistant Secretary of State in 1879-81; in the latter year was president of the international sanitary congress in Washington; in 1897-98 was ambassador to Great Britain; and in September of the latter year was appointed Secretary of State to succeed Judge William R. Day (q. v.). His publications include C
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Las Casas, Bartolome de 1474-1566 (search)
d in 1527 he proceeded to labor as a missionary among the Indians in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. To reward him for his benevolent labors, his King appointed him bishop of Cuzco, a rich see; he declined it, but accepted that of Chiapa, in Mexico. The Spaniards were offended by his zeal in behalf of the Indians, and an officer of the Spanish Court undertook to justify the conduct of the Spaniards towards the natives. Las Casas, in selfdefence, wrote a work upon the natives, which contained many particulars of the cruelties of the Spanish colonists. It was translated into several European languages, and increased the hostilities of the colonists and offended the Church. He returned to Spain in 1551, after about fifty years of benevolent missionary labor, and passed the remainder of his days in a convent at Valladolid. There he completed his General history of the Indies, published in 1875, and several other works, in Latin and Spanish. He died in Madrid, in July, 1566.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Martinez-Campos, Arsenio 1834-1877 (search)
Martinez-Campos, Arsenio 1834-1877 Military officer; born in Cuba in 1834; was educated at Madrid; and became a colonel when twenty-nine years old. For a time he served in Morocco and Cuba, and returned to Spain, with the rank of brigadier-general, in 1870, and took part in putting down the Carlist insurrection. Later he declared against the republic and was imprisoned as a conspirator, but after requesting to serve in the Liberal army he was set free, and given the command of a division under Concha. He took part in the battles of Los Munecas and Galdames, and raised the siege of Bilbao. Returning to Madrid he espoused the cause of Alfonso XII., and with Jovellar succeeded in placing the royal heir on the throne. He was next sent into the disturbed territory of Catalonia, which he pacified in less than a month. In 1876 he ended the civil war by defeating Don Carlos at Peña de la Plata, for which he Arsenio Martinez-Campos. was appointed a captain-general. In the followi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ostend manifesto. (search)
Ostend manifesto. In July, 1853, William L. Marcy, the Secretary of State, wrote to Pierre Soule, American minister at Madrid, directing him to urge upon the Spanish government the sale or cession of Cuba to the United States. Nothing more was done until after the affair of the Black Warrior in the winter of 1854. In April, 1854, Mr. Soule was instructed and clothed with full power to negotiate for the purchase of the island. In August the Secretary suggested to Minister Buchanan in London, Minister Mason at Paris, and Minister Soule at Madrid the propriety of holding a conference for the purpose of adopting measures for a concert of action in aid of negotiations with Spain. They accordingly met at Ostend, a seaport town in Belgium, Oct. 9, 1854. After a session of three days they adjourned to Aix-la-Chapelle, in Rhenish Prussia, and thence they addressed a letter, Oct. 18, to the United States government embodying their views. In it they suggested that an earnest effort to
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ovando, Nicholas de 1460-1518 (search)
la to supplant Bobadilla as governor of Santo Domingo in 1501, charged by the Queen not to allow the enslavement of the natives, but to protect them as subjects of Spain, and to carefully instruct them in the Christian faith. Ovando sailed for the West Indies, Feb. 13, 1502, with thirty-two ships, bearing 2,500 persons to become settlers in that country. By command of the Queen, the Spaniards and natives were to pay tithes; none but natives of Castile were to live in the Indies; none to go on discoveries without royal permission; no Jews, Moors, nor new converts were to be tolerated there; and all the property that had been taken from Columbus and his brother was to be restored to them. In Ovando's fleet were ten Franciscan friars, the first of that order who came to settle in the Indies. Ovando, like Bobadilla, treated Columbus with injustice. He was recalled in 1508, and was succeeded in office by Diego Columbus, son of the great admiral. Ovando died in Madrid, Spain, in 1518.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Revolutionary War, (search)
British under Major Gardiner driven from Port Royal Island by General Moultrie Feb. 3, 1779 Franklin commissioned sole minister plenipotentiary to France, and Adams recalled Feb., 1779 Battle of Kettle Creek, Ga., American victory Feb. 14, 1779 Americans under Major Clarke capture Vincennes Feb. 20, 1779 Battle of Brier Creek, Ga., British victory March 3, 1779 Salt works at Horseneck, Conn., destroyed by General TryonMarch 26, 1779 American ministers recalled, except at Versailles and Madrid April, 1779 Americans repulsed at Stono Ferry, S. C.June 20, 1779 Spain declares war against Great Britain June, 1779 British under Tryon plunder New Haven, July 5, and burn Fairfield, July 8, and Norwalk July 12, 1779 Americans under Wayne take by storm Fort Stony Point, N. Y. July 16, 1779 Expedition against the British at Fort Casting, Me., repulsed July 25, 1779 American fleet arrive at Penobscot, July 25, and are dispersed by British fleet Aug. 13, 1779 Congress agrees to a basis
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), St.-Simon, Claude Anne, Marquis de 1743- (search)
St.-Simon, Claude Anne, Marquis de 1743- Military officer; born in the Castle of La Faye, Spain, in 1743; learned the art of gunnery and fortifications at Strasburg; distinguished himself in Flanders: and was chief of the body-guard of the King of Poland in 1758. After various services in Europe, he came to America with De Grasse, at the head of French troops, and assisted in the siege of Yorktown in 1781. In 1789 he was a deputy in the States-General. Being a native of Spain, he returned to the service of that country, and assisted in the defence of Madrid in 1808. He was made prisoner and condemned to death, but the sentence Claude Anne St.-Simon. was commuted to exile. After Ferdinand VII. was re-established on the throne (1814), St.-Simon returned to Spain, and was made captain-general and grandee. He died Jan. 3, 1819.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Santiago, naval battle of (search)
omas; Schley, Winfield Scott; Spain, War with. United States Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, in a narrative of the American-Spanish War, gives the following graphic history of the great naval engagement off the entrance to the harbor of Santiago de Cuba on July 3, 1898: It matters little now why Cervera pushed open the door of Santiago Harbor and rushed out to ruin and defeat. The admiral himself would have the world understand that he was forced out by illadvised orders from Havana and Madrid. Very likely this is true. It did not occur to the Spaniards that the entire American army had been flung upon El Caney and San Juan, and that there were no reserves. Their own reports, moreover, from the coast were wild and exaggerated, so that, deceived by these as well as by the daring movements and confident attitude of the American army, they concluded that the city was menaced by not less than 50,000 men. Under these conditions Santiago would soon be surrounded, cut off, starved, an
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Smith, Buckingham -1871 (search)
Smith, Buckingham -1871 Historian; born on Cumberland Island, Ga., Oct. 31, 1810; graduated at Cambridge Law School in 1836; elected to the Florida legislature; was secretary of the United States legation at Mexico in 1850-52, and at Madrid in 1855-58; and later settled in Florida, where he became a judge and a member of the State Senate. He made many important researches in Indian philology, Mexican history and antiquities, and early Spanish expeditions in North America. He aided Bancroft, Parkman, and Sparks in their researches, and published An inquiry into the authenticity of documents concerning a discovery of North America claimed to have been made by Verrazano. He died in New York City, Jan. 5, 1871.
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