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he vicinity. The bed consists of a first course of great piles, which have been driven by steam-power 15 feet into the solid ground. Upon these is a thick bulk of oak, solidly braced and bolted together, and the combined mass forms the bed of the anvil. Only about half a foot of its bulk will appear above ground. The block will have to sustain the blows of a 25-ton steam-hammer which will be employed in forging 600-pounder and 300-pounder guns for Mr. Whitworth. Mr. Ireland, of Manchester, England, has a portable plant for casting large anvil-blocks in the posi- tion they are to occupy on the premises where they are to be used. He furnishes everything but the iron and the blast. The plant used at Mr. Bessemer's works consisted simply of a cupola 4 feet in diameter within the lining, and 12 feet deep to the charging-door, constructed on the upper tweer principle. A belt about 2 feet 9 inches deep surrounds the cylinder at about 7 feet from the ground, and into this belt
in its earliest infancy. The next improvement was the substitution of dilute sulphuric acid for sour milk. This reduced the time one half. Scheele, in 1774, had discovered chlorine; and Berthollet, in 1784, ascertained that an aqueous solution of chlorine discharged vegetable colors. This he communicated to Watt, and it was soon adopted in Scotland with linen. Berthollet added potash to the water to preserve the health of the workmen and the texture of the goods. Dr. Henry, of Manchester, substituted lime for potash, the goods being passed through a cream of lime and then exposed to chlorine. This formed a chloride of lime on the cloth. In 1798, Tennant, of Glasgow, adopted a saturated solution of chloride of lime, and subsequently impregnated dry lime with the gas, making bleaching powder. Bleaching, of cotton goods especially, is conducted on a systematic large scale, and includes singeing and washing; the former to remove the fibrous down from the surface, and th
utiful staple languished. The culture and manufacture revived again in Spain at Valencia and Barcelona respectively. Fabrics and yarns were largely imported from the East into Europe for several centuries; but the manufacture of the cotton-wool, as it was long called, gradually crept into the various countries of Europe. The earliest notice in England is by Roberts, 1641, who describes the excellent goods, fustians, cermillions, dimities, and other stuffs, made by the inhabitants of Manchester, of cotton-wool brought from Smyrna and Cyprus. First made by machinery by Louis Paul in 1736-40. See Cottonmachinery. In the seventeenth century, cotton fabrics were so largely imported into England from India as to interfere with the woolen, linen, and silk interests, and the importation of cotton goods was forbidden in 1700. An act of parliament in 1721 imposed a fine of £ 5 on the wearer of cotton and £ 20 on the vendor. It was thought to be the ruin of England, and every dep
drowning-tray. Fly—wheel. A heavy wheel attached to machinery to equalize the movement. By its inertia it opposes any sudden accelera- tion of speed, and by its momentum it prevents sudden diminution of speed; in the latter case it acts as a store of power to continue the movement when the motor temporarily flags, or in passing dead centers when the motor is inoperative. Fly-wheels were first mounted with teeth on their peripheries, to act as first motions, by Fairbairn of Manchester, England. The fly-wheel attached to the engine set up at Millwall by Boulton and Watt, for rolling armorplates, weighs 100 tons. The Mahovo is the name given by the inventor, Captain C. Von Schubersky, of Russia, to an adaptation of the fly-wheel to accumulate a reserve of force to be used at intervals when a greater power is needed. Von Schubersky's Mahovo. A pair of heavy cast-steel fly-wheels have an independent truck of their own, which is introduced into the train immediately
ly Magazine, London, June 1, 1805. In 1803 – 4, Winsor lighted the Lyceum Theater and took out a patent for lighting streets by gas. He established the first gas-company. In 1804 – 5, Murdoch lighted the cotton-factory of Philips and Lee, Manchester, the light being estimated as equal to 3,000 candles. This was the largest undertaking up to that date. In 1807, Winsor lighted one side of Pall Mall, London; the first street lighting. Westminster Bridge was lighted in 1813. Houses o. B is the form of gutter, scored out of a solid piece of timber, which was used in the London Crystal Palace of 1861. It was supported on the upper flanges of the main trusses. C is the arrangement adopted at the Smithfield Market, Manchester, England. The principal rafter a and tie b rest on the cast-iron gutter c, which is supported by the column d. D exhibits several forms of top and side gutters worked out of the solid. Gutters. 4. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A device (E,
nning very high numbers have been reached. Previous to the introduction of the mule, few spinners could make yarn over No. 200. The natives of India, however, in their patient way and humid climate, made Nos. 300 to 400. Houldsworth, of Manchester, England, has made No. 700, which was woven in France. He is stated to have reached No. 10,000, a fineness beyond all useful range, but interesting as illustrating the perfection and capacity of his machinery. b. A measure of 3,000 yards of linipe, and a water-escape. It was supplied by the boiler of the establishment. The experiment was repeated by a system of copper pipes, under Hoyle's patent, 1791. The steam ascended to the top of the building and passed downward. Lee of Manchester erected a heating apparatus of cast-iron pipes, which also served as supports for the floor. This was constructed by Boulton and Watt in 1799. Fig. 2473 shows one form of steam-heating apparatus, in which exhaust steam from the engine is co
hes are carried on the endless belt under the heated roller. The table is depressible to allow the passage of heavy articles. The roller cover is the bottom of the fire-chamber, and the fire is urged by air from a blower driven by the crank which carries the endless apron. I′ron-liq′uor. (Dyeing.) A solution of acetate of iron, used as a mordant by calico-printers. I′ron-man. (Cotton-manufacture.) A name applied to the self-acting mule invented in 1825 by Roberts, of Manchester, England. The working of the ordinary mule was confided to the most skillful operatives. The machine by which their services were dispensed with was regarded as a triumph of ingenuity, and was thus named. See mule. Ironing-machine. I′ron-pa′per. A name given to extremely thin sheet-iron, which has been rolled thinner than the finest tissue-paper. In the American Department of the British Exhibition of 1851 very thin specimens were shown, and from this period a lively compe
. An attachment to a lock to prevent the turning of the key by an outsider. Key-file. A flat file having a constant thickness, and used in filing the ward-notches in keys. Key-groov′ing ma-chine′. (Metal-working.) One for slotting the center-holes of wheels to make a groove for the key, which fastens the wheel to its shaft, so that it may not turn thereon. It is a modification of the planing-machine, which grew out of the slide-rest. It was invented by Roberts of Manchester, England. The wheel to be grooved is dogged to the sliding-bed and fed beneath the tool, which is reciprocated vertically above it by means of a crank or eccentric. To make the groove taper, the work is tipped to the required extent; to make several key-ways, the wheel is mounted on a turn-table with notches cut in its edges, to indicate the exact relative positions, as in planing squares, hexagons, etc. See Fig. 2748. Key-Fastener. The slotting-machine is an outgrowth of the keygroovi<
s a roller imparting a vibratory motion to the lay, in which is a raceway for the shuttle. Warping-mill, winding-machine, and power-loom. Fig. 3000 is a perspective view of a warpingmachine, winding-machine, and a loom for light and medium cotton goods. Fig. 3001 is a perspective view of two looms, one for domestics and heavy cotton goods, the other, on the right of the picture, for linens. Looms for domestic cottons and for linens. With the modern power-loom, the cost at Manchester of weaving a piece of cotton cloth 25 inches wide, 29 yards long, and 11 picks per 1/4 inch, is estimated at 10 1/4 cents. One person can attend to two or three looms, and each loom produces 26 pieces of such cloth per day. On the old hand-loom of 1800, one man would attend to one loom, and would produce 4 pieces at an expense of 66 cents each. In plain cloths the warp and weft threads are of about equal fineness. Yarns of two different sizes introduced into the web produce a sort
ndrical armature, wound with insulated wire in the direction of its length, was made to revolve between the poles of a number of parallel horseshoe magnets. By this means much more powerful currents were obtained. In 1866, Mr. Wilde of Manchester, England, conceived the idea of passing the current developed by an apparatus of this kind through the insulated wire of an electro-magnet of larger size. He found that the force of the magnetism thus excited was far greater than that of the serie, is hardened, and forms a mill, which is capable of delivering an intaglio impression upon a plate or roller, as above stated. The process was invented by Jacob Perkins, and adapted to engraving cylinders for calico-printing by Locket of Manchester, England. See under the following heads: — Amalgamator.Oil-cake mill. Arrastra.Oil-mill. Bait-mill.Ore-mill. Bark-mill.Paint-mill. Barker's mill.Pearl-barley machine. Barley-mill.Pearling-mill. Battery.Peat-machine. Bean-mill.Percussio
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