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each place being characterized by some peculiarity in the style or manner of manufacture. Immense numbers are made at Birmingham, certain varieties of which are sold by thousands of dozens as dolls' eyes. At Murano, near Venice, where great numbock. Cylinder borer. This machine was invented by George Wright when in the employment of Boulton and Watt, Birmingham, England. A machine substantially the same, but with a different feed arrangement, is shown in the accompanying illustra century. About 1670 the metallic buttonmanufacture of England took its rise. A manufactory was established in Birmingham, England, 1689, and that city still maintains a preeminence in this manufacture, as in so many others, employing no less th of being brightly polished by means of an agate or bloodstone burnisher. Gilt buttons first made by Taylor, of Birmingham, England, 1768. Manufacture improved, 1790. Metallic buttons without shanks are formed by stamping; those of wood, bone
y gas distributed through service-pipes. In 1798, Murdoch lighted with gas the works of Boulton and Watt, Soho, near Birmingham. On the occasion of a public rejoicing for peace, 1802, he made an illumination of the Works; probably an outside exles£2,000,000 Number of exhibitors,— British7,381 Foreign6,556 13,957 In 1838, Mr. Robert Lucas Chance, of Birmingham, England, successfully introduced the manufacture of Bohemian sheet-glass into his district. Mr. James Chance perfected thform density and refracting power into one large mass by pressure while in a plastic state. In 1855, Messrs. Chance of Birmingham exhibited at the Exposition of that year a pair of disks, crown and flint, about an inch larger than those of M. Pfeil.lling glass, to make plate-glass and avoid the undulating surface incident to blown window-glass. Messrs. Chance, of Birmingham, expended £ 100,--000 in trying to perfect the machinery therefor, but failed to accomplish it, and abandoned the enter
ammers are of many shapes and kinds. The parts are the handle and head. The latter has an eye, face, peen, or claw. F shows a riveting hammer. Of its parts a is the face, b the poll, c the eye, d the peen, c the helve. G is a large hammer used by machinists. Between F and G is a claw, which takes the place of the peen of the other hammer. I and J are miners' hammers; K a miner's wedge. Hammer-making forms a very important part of the industry of the great manufacturing center, Birmingham, and its satellite, Wolverhampton. The nomenclature of the various kinds, which are numerous, is generally derived from their application, though in some instances from the form. File-maker's, sledge, riveting, lift, raising, claw, planishing, gold-beater's, hacking, veneering, may be enumerated among the numerous varieties, as well as tilt and steam hammers. Hammers employed in engine work are of three sizes, the sledge, flogging, and hand hammers. See also miner's hammer. F
of metal. When they first obtained nails, they mistook them for the young shoots of some very hard wood, and, hoping that life might not be quite extinct, planted a number of them carefully in their gardens. Eight years after the first voyage of Captain Cook, that distinguished navigator says iron had quite superseded stone and bone. Until eighty years since nails were always forged. Before the introduction of machine-made nails, 60,000 persons were employed in forging nails in Birmingham, England. One authority states that there are about 300 varieties of nails made in England, and 10 sizes of each variety. We have no such to present. The English mode of numbering, 7 lb., 8 lb., etc., denotes that 1,000 of the respective varieties would have those weights. This mode of enumeration is substantially similar to our own, but much variation has occurred. The following are the names, lengths, and number to the pound of the several sizes of nails: — Name.Inches long.N
y Montin, a German snuff-box maker, who is said to have learned the art from Lefevre about 1740. In 1745, the year fatal to Lochiel, it was introduced into Birmingham, England. The commoner varieties are prepared by pulping any kind or mixture of different kinds of paper into a homogeneous mass of a doughy consistence. Some ea This lacked the desired permanency, and was supplanted by the method still generally employed where electro-magnetic agency is not resorted to. As practiced at Birmingham, Sheffield, and other places where work of this description is largely carried on, the process is essentially as follows: An ingot, composed of an alloy of coppy of our driving business men have made prayingmachines for the Oriental market, although castiron gods, bronzed and varnished, have been made by the ton in Birmingham, England, and exported thence to heathen lands. Praying-machines are in vogue in all the lands which acknowledge Thibet as their religious center. This includes
and Blackwall, England. t, Manchester and Birmingham, England. u, Saint-Etienne to Lyon, France. v, W chairs. y, Morris and Prevost, England. z, Birmingham and Gloucester, England. a′, London and BirminBirmingham, England. b′, London and Brighton, England. c′, Midland counties, England. d′, contractor's rail. stamping instead of cutting out with the saw. At Birmingham, devices are stamped from sheet-brass and appliedg. The grooves were made spiral by Koster of Birmingham, England, about 1620. In Berlin is a rifled cannon ofkenild Street; from St. David's, Wales, by way of Birmingham, Derby, and York, to Tynemouth, England. 3. Folan was attempted many years ago by Chance of Birmingham, England, for making plateglass. It was abandoned. roof of 80 feet span, covering the theater at Birmingham, England. Queen-post roof, Birmingham theater, EnglaBirmingham theater, England. Iron roofs were first used in England, and were the subject of a patent by Robert Ransome, 1783. T
s, — introduced into England in 1850 by Chance Brothers, Birmingham, on the occasion of the construction of the World's Fairhine for making sheet-glass. The Messrs. Chance, of Birmingham, are understood to have spent about £ 100,000 in attemptrging operations were superseded some years since at Birmingham, England, by rolling processes, which have become general. arison, and specimens of African hoes were pronounced at Birmingham nearly equal to the best Swedish iron. Dr. Barth makeected upon the object held upon a charcoal support. The Birmingham cheap jewelry makers employ a gas-jet, and support the owheel. The machine was not successful. James, of Birmingham, England, from 1824 to 1832, appears to have constructed seveulton — afterward Boulton and Watt — were established in Birmingham, 1764. Steamengines were made there in 1774. The firen, 1681; Hamburg, 1675; Berlin, 1682; Vienna, 1704; Birmingham, England, 1733. For lighting by gas, see gas. Street-lam
t passed through a moist conductor, such as a wet string or animal tissue. Professor Page in America, De la Rive in France, Gassiot in London, and Marrian in Birmingham, discovered that rods of iron placed in the interior of a helix through which a current of electricity is passed give out decided sounds at the moment when the hington9 1/8 inches aperture; 14 ft. 4 1/2 in. focal length Alleghany City13 inches aperture. The disks for Clark's lenses are made by Chance & Co., of Birmingham, England. The crucibles are of clay, and are built up gradually in rings of about 2 inches in hight, the process requiring a whole year for its completion. Opter cent of the whole of the plates employed disappears in the form of scraps. The trade in sardine-boxes produced at Nantes, in 1869, nearly 400 tons of scrap; Birmingham produces about 20 tons per week, and Paris 50 to 60 tons per month. The tin-scrap of New York is estimated at 30 tons per day. A small quantity of these scraps
r their correspondence with the subdivisions of the inch. The Birmingham gage is the best known and most generally used in England, and waevised It is so called from its being employed as the standard at Birmingham, always the great headquarters of the iron trade. The defects o adopted. The difference between these and those of the old, or Birmingham, gage is shown in the following table:— weight of wrought-ie sizes of needle-wire bear no relation to those of the wiregage (Birmingham). Nos. Needle-wire1, 2, 2 1/2, 3, 4, 5, up to 21. BirminghamBirmingham gage18 1/2, 19, 19 1/2, 20, 21, 22, up to 38. So also of piano-forte wire:— Music-wire6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20. BirmingBirmingham gage26, 25 1/2, 25, 24 1/2, 24, 23 1/2, 23, 21, 21, 20, 19. Machine for making combined wood and wire fence. Nos. 1 to 5 music-wire probably in existence was made by Messrs. J. & E. Wright of Birmingham, England. It consists of six strands containing each ten wires surro