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the blowtube is partially expanded, and then placed between the parts of an iron mold which is open to receive it. The parts are closed and locked, and the bulb then expanded by the breath to completely fill the mold. In 1822, Rickets, of Bristol, England, obtained a patent for a bottle-molding apparatus, comprising a frame for holding and operating a bottle-mold. The mold consisted of a die for forming the body of the bottle, a two-part die for forming its top, and a plunger for shaping itse, and erasures may therefore be made without exposing an inferior underlying quality. See cardboard. Bris′tol-brick. A brick composed principally of granular silicious matter. Used for polishing steel, etc. The name is derived from Bristol, England, near which city they are made. Brisure. (Fortification.) A break in the general direction of the parapet of the curtain, when constructed with orillons and retired flanks. Brit-annia-met′al. A white-metal alloy, resembling sil<
nd dice may be consulted in Harper's Magazine, Vol. XXVI., pp. 163-176. Card′board. Cardboard is produced by pasting a number of sheets of paper together. Bristol board is all white paper, and is made of two or more sheets according to the thickness required. Other qualities are made by inclosing common thick paper between eventual success is connected with a pleasing episode in the history of mechanical industry, which is substantially as follows:— About 1709, Abraham Darby, of Bristol, had a Welsh boy in his service named John Thomas. The master had been endeavoring to cast iron with but indifferent success, and the boy stated that he saw throcross the Itchen River, Hampshire, England. The chain pier of Brighton was erected in 1822. The chains of Hungerford Bridge, London, were moved to Clifton, near Bristol, and now span the Avon. The span is 720 feet; hight above water, 260 feet. See ferry-bridge. 2. An early (for Europe) form of the suspensionbridge in which c
able occasions may be cited: the ascent of Pompey's pillar, a pillar of red granite 114 feet high, near Alexandria; and in the ascent of the Peter Botte Mountain in the Mauritius. It is also used for lodging a cord on steeples and other structures, to enable them to be fitted with lightning-rods or for the purpose of repair. The first wire of the foot Suspension-Bridge at Niagara was carried over by a kite. In 1827 Pocock yoked a pair of kites to a carriage, and traveled from London to Bristol. He determined that a 12-foot kite gave the power of a man, with a moderate breeze, and, when the wind is brisker, a power of 220 pounds. (This is an incomplete statement, but the figures are not ours.) The force, he states, in a rather high wind, is as the squares of the lengths of the kites; and two kites, of 12 and 15 feet respectively, will draw a carriage and four or five passengers at the rate of 20 miles per hour. (Grade not stated.) Pocock had an extra line to vary the angle of t
ike manner carries off the bags from the station. Other plans have scoops or cylinders on the car which pocket the mail-bag suspended from a crane or lying upon a support from which it may be shoveled, picked, or shot by the device on the car. A somewhat similar converse arrangement deposits at the station the bag carried by the car. Mail-coach. A carriage chartered by the postoffice department or hired to carry postal matter. Mail-coaches were introduced by Robert Palmer of Bristol, England, in 1784. Mail′ing-ma-chine′. A machine for attaching addresses to newspapers, etc., for transmission by mail. See addressing-machine; also, Ringwalt's Encyelopaedia of printing, pp. 226, 227. Mail-net. (Fabric.) A form of loom-made net, which is a combination of common gauze and whipnet in the same fabric. The whole fabric is a continued succession of right-angled triangles, of which the woof forms the basis, the gauze part the perpendiculars, and the whip part the hypo<
Zuinglius and some of the early reformers, the German churches were, during the sixteenth century, generally provided with organs. During this century, the German builders introduced the register and the stopped pipe. The key-board also was extended to four octaves. England, also, was well provided with artists of this class, and possessed some fine instruments. In 1634, we are informed that the organ in the cathedral of Durham cost pound1,000. Those of York, Litchfield, Hereford, Bristol, and other cathedral towns were also noted. During the civil war, the Puritans, particularly the parliamentary soldiers, destroyed many fine organs, breaking them in pieces and selling the pipes for old metal. Few or none being built during this period, the art became almost forgotten in England, so that Pepys records, under date of July 8, 1660: To White-Hall Chapel, where I got in with ease by going before the Lord Chancellor with Mr. Kipps. Here I heard very good musique, the first
n as hard plate when used in this connection. See under the following heads: — Addressing-machine.Knotter. Antiquarian paper.Label. Ass.Lace. Atlas-paper.Laid-paper. Autographic paper.Letter-clip. Bark-paper.Letter-file. Bath note-paper.Letter-paper. Beating-engine.Letter-stamping machine. Bill-holder.Lifter. Billet-note.Linen-paper. Binder's board.Lithographic paper. Blotter.Littress. Blotting-paper.Mailing-machine. Board.Manilla-paper. Bond-paper.Map and chart holder. Bristol board.Marble-paper. Bronzing.Medium. Brown paper.Metallic paper. Calendering-paper.Mill-board. Cap-paper.Music-paper. Card-board.Nepaul-paper. Card-cutting machine.Newspaper clamp. Carton.Newspaper-folder. Carton-pierre.Oiled paper. Cartridge-paper.Paper-bag machine. Case-paper.Paper-boat. Cloth-paper.Paper-box machine. Columbier.Paper-clip. Copy-paper.Paper-cloth. Copying-paper.Paper-collar. Cosaques.Paper-coloring. Cotton-paper.Paper-cutting machine. Cross-rule paper.Pape
es patents for power-brakes up to the close of 1872 numbered 59. In England, from 1840 to 1866, there were patented 22 electric brakes; from 1835 to 1865, 20 hydrostatic brakes; from 1838 to 1866, 30 pneumatic brakes; from 1836 to 1866, 54 steam-brakes. Since 1869, seven companies for the manufacture of power-brakes which lies over the Bristol and Exeter and Great Western Railways. Leaving Exeter at 10.30 it is timed to reach Paddington at 2.45; including a stoppage of five minutes at Bristol, and the inevitable and vexatious ten minutes at Swindon, the journey of 194 miles occupies 4 1/4 hours. The speed of 70 miles an hour sometimes attained upon railways is equivalent to about 35 yards per second. At this rate have been organized in the United States, and more than one sixth of the 444 railroads in this country and Canada are now provided with them. The principle, in all cases, consists in releasing, by means of devices at the hand of the engineer, a power stored up in
rm. This was superseded by the method now employed of dropping the molten metal, in a finely divided state, from a hight into water, invented by Watts, of Bristol, England, about 1782. It is said that he dreamed one night that he was out in a shower of rain, every drop of which was a round pellet of lead. Musing on the matter varieties2.43-3.873 Steatite2.61 Stone, building varieties1.386-2.945 Stone, building, common2.520 Stone, building, Bath, England1.961 Stone, building, Bristol, England2.510 Stone, building, Norfolk, England (Parliament House)2.304 Stone, building, Portland2.368 Stone, building, Caen, Fr2.076 Stone, building, Notre Dame in 1838, and fitted with a propeller; the Rattler, in 1842. The Robert F. Stockton propeller. In 1838 the Sirius and Great Western crossed the Atlantic from Bristol to New York, the former in 19 and the latter in 18 days. Machinery of the Robert F. Stockton. In the same year the Archimedes, an English government vessel,
fall, as the tide ebbs and flows. 4. The axle of the wheel may be fixed, the wheel receiving the influx and efflux of the water, being more or less submerged according to the state of the tide. The former is the preferable arrangement. See also tide-wheel. Tide-wheel. A wheel turned by the ebb and flow of the tide, and employed as a motor for driving machinery, etc. The most remarkable variations in the tide are at Chepstow, where the rise of spring tides is about 60 feet; at Bristol it is 40 feet: in Mount St. Michael's Bay it is 46 feet; in the Bay of Fundy and on the coast of Nova Scotia it is about 60 feet; whilst in the Northern Atlantic it is on the average from 10 to 12 feet; at St. Helena only 3 feet; and on the shores of the islands of the Pacific it is barely perceptible Where the rise is so extreme, it is produced by the contraction of the sides of the river or estuary, as the Bristol Channel, for instance, or a convergence to one point of wide stretches o
4 for the 8 ribs. Weighing the ribs, to give them all an equal flexure, requires 8 more transfers from hand to hand, and threading the ribs to the stretchers brings up the total series of operations required for the frame to nearly 150. Within comparatively few years, this cost, in London, from 1/2 d. to 2 1/2 d. each, for common umbrellas and parasols; one man and four boys can put together 100 frames daily. For covering each frame, women received from 1 d. upward. A tradesman in Bristol, England, has just made a monster umbrella for an African chief. It is 65 feet in circumference, the lancewood ribs being 6 feet long, and there are 140 yards of material in it. It is covered with red, blue, and white chintz, and takes two men to expand it. In Trinidad are colonies of ants, known as parasol ants, from the fact that each individual carries a leaf in his mouth, which shades his back. These luxurious insects, on being disturbed, rush into their holes and bring out a lot
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