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requented by Lombard adventurers. The fisheries of the north had long tempted the merchants of Bristol to an intercourse with Iceland; and had matured the nautical skill that could buffet the worst flag of England. It was, therefore, not difficult for John Cabot, a Venetian, then residing at Bristol, to interest that politic king in plans for discovery. On the fifth of March, 1496, he obtainef England, that the patentees should be strictly bound, on every return, to land at the port of Bristol, and to pay to the king one-fifth part of their gains; while the exclusive right of frequentingthe great admiral; he dressed in silk; and the English, and even Venetians who chanced to be at Bristol, ran after him with such zeal that he could enlist for a new voyage as many as he pleased. A-west passage to Cathay and Japan. A few days after the English navigator had left the port of Bristol, Vasco de Gama, of Portugal, as daring and almost as young, having turned the Cape of Good Hope
ir fame was dimmed by that of Vasco de Gama, whose achievement made Lisbon the emporium of Europe. Thorne and Eliot, of Bristol, visited Newfoundland probably in 1502; in that year, savages in their wild attire were exhibited to the king; but Northg king promoted a voyage of discovery, but it tooke no full effect. To avoid interference with Spain, Robert Thorne, of Bristol, who had long resided in Seville, proposed voyages to the east by way of the north; believing that there would be found ecial value on his discovery of North America. To find a shorter route to the land of spices he had sailed in 1498 from Bristol; in 1527, had led forth a Spanish expedition, which reached La Plata and the Parana. Still haunted by the dream of his d visited. Could it be that the voyage was so safe, the climate so pleasant, the country so inviting? The merchants of Bristol, with the ready assent of Raleigh, Purchas, IV. 1614. and at the instance of Richard Hakluyt, the enlightened friend
and every Christian the wonted booty of the successful corsair Servitude was thus the doom of the Christian in Northern Africa: the hatred of the Moorish dominion extending to all Africa, an indiscriminate and retaliating bigotry felt no remorse at dooming the sons of Africa to bondage. All Africans were esteemed as Moors. The amelioration of the customs of Europe had Chap. V.} proceeded from the influence of religion. It was the clergy who had broken up the Christian slave-markets at Bristol and at Hamburg, at Lyons and at Rome. At the epoch of the discovery of America, the moral opinion of the civilized world had abolished the traffic in Christian slaves, and was fast demanding the emancipation of the serfs: but bigotry had favored a compromise with avarice; and the infidel was not yet included within the pale of humanity. Yet negro slavery is not an invention of the white man. As Greeks enslaved Greeks, as the Hebrew often consented to make the Hebrew his absolute lord, a
, and, practically, all the rights of an independent state, having England for its guardian against foreign oppression, rather than its ruler, Chap. VI.} 1646. the colonists enjoyed all the prosperity which a virgin soil, equal laws, and general uniformity of condition and industry, could bestow. Their numbers increaseed; the cottages were filled with children, as the ports were with ships and emigrants. At Christmas, 1648, there were trading in Virginia, ten ships from London, two from Bristol, twelve Hollanders, and seven from New England. New Description of Virginia, 15, in II. Mass. Hist. Coll. IX. 118. The number of the colonists was already twenty thousand; and they, who had sustained no griefs, were not tempted to engage in the feuds by which the mother country was divided. They were attached to the cause of Charles, not because they loved monarchy, but because they cherished the liberties of which he had left them in the undisturbed possession; and, after his executio
r success in establishing colonies. The Spaniards, affecting an exclusive right of navigation in the seas of the new hemisphere, captured and confiscated a vessel Purchas, IV. 1827 and 1832, and ff. Gorges' Briefe Narration, c. IV. Prince's N. E. Chronology, 113,114. u. Mass. Hist. Coll. IX. 3, 4. which Nov 10 Popham, the chief justice of England, and Gorges, the governor of Plymouth, had, with some others, equipped for discovery. But a second and almost simultaneous expedition from Bristol encountered no disasters; and the voyagers, on their return, increased public confidence, by renewing the favorable reports of the country which they had visited. Gorges, c. v. 6. The spirit of adventure was not suffered to slumber; the lord chief justice displayed persevering vigor, for his honor was interested in the success of the company which his influence had contributed to establish; Gorges, The name of Gorges occurs in Hume, c. XLIV.; Lingard, VIII. 449. Compare Belknap's Bio
ents, for their labor, great as was the demand for it, was worth less than their support. Famine threatened to seize the emigrants as they stepped on shore; and it soon appeared necessary for them, even at a ruinous expense, to send the Lyon to Bristol for food. To seek out a place for their plantation, since Salem pleased them not, Winthrop, on the seventeenth of June, sailed into Boston harbor. The West countrymen, who, before leaving England had organized their church with Maverick and of mind. Such were the scenes in the infant settlements of 1631. Massachusetts. The supply of bread was nearly exhausted, when on the fifth of February, after a long and stormy passage, the timely arrival of the Lyon Chap. IX.} 1631. from Bristol laden with provisions, caused public thanksgiving through all the plantations. Yet the ship brought but twenty passengers; and quenched all hope of immediate accessions. In 1631 ninety only came over, fewer than had gone back the preceding yea