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. Two of the latter have the following dimensions: — Depth of Water at Sill. Feet. Length.Width. Canada dock-lock50010026 Huskisson dock-lock3968024.75 Birkenhead dock-lock5008530.25 16 graving-docks of Liverpool300-70040-7018-21 3 Birkenhead graving-docks75050-7025.75 10 private graving-docks, Birkenhead380-4080-8719.Birkenhead graving-docks75050-7025.75 10 private graving-docks, Birkenhead380-4080-8719.25-24 Grav′i-ty-bat′ter-y. Invented by Callaud or by C. F. Varley, London; English patent, December 5, 1854, no. 2555. A form of double-fluid battery, in which the fluids range themselves at different hights in a single jar by virtue of their different specific gravities. The copper or — element is in the bottom, and the Birkenhead380-4080-8719.25-24 Grav′i-ty-bat′ter-y. Invented by Callaud or by C. F. Varley, London; English patent, December 5, 1854, no. 2555. A form of double-fluid battery, in which the fluids range themselves at different hights in a single jar by virtue of their different specific gravities. The copper or — element is in the bottom, and the zinc or + in the upper part of the cell. See Callaud battery. In the ordinary forms of gravity or Callaud battery, if the sulphate of copper dissolves faster than its solution is used up, the copper solution rises, finally touching the zinc, rendering the battery useless. R. M. Lockwood, patent April 8, 1873, shows
on's English patent is dated July 13, 1836, for a propeller containing several blades or segments of a screw, the twist of which was determined in accordance with the principle now usually adopted. His propeller, the Francis B. Ogden, was tried in April, 1837, and in May of that year was used in towing an American packet, the ship Toronto, of 700 tons burden, to sea; 4 1/2 knots an hour against wind and tide. Ericsson's second vessel, the Robert F. Stockton, was built by the Lairds of Birkenhead, and launched July 7, 1838. This vessel was built for Captain Stockton, of the United States Navy. She crossed to the United States in 1839, and was purchased by the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company. Captain Ericsson subsequently built the propeller Enterprize. He was the first to couple the engine directly to the propeller-shaft. It will thus be seen that Captain Ericsson accomplished for the screw-propeller in America and in England what Fulton did for the paddle-wheel in the form
are 37 in number, having an area of 167.517 acres. The dry basins are 7 in number, with an area of 20.185 acres. The whole dock-water space is 235 acres, on the Liverpool side of the river. The graving docks are numerous, and the lineal yards of quay space amount to 19.195 yards. Most of the docks have their own entrances to the Mersey, and the whole chain of docks are connected independently of the river. They also have inland canal and railway connections. The dock-water space of Birkenhead, on the opposite side of the Mersey, is 153 acres. The docks of London cover an area of 227 acres; 154 acres being on the Middlesex side, and the remainder on the Surrey side. The tonnage of London is three times that of Liverpool, but the Thames has spacious and convenient moorings, while the shipping of the Mersey is necessarily accommodated in docks. The moorings of the Thames afford berths for 461 vessels. The number of vessels passing in and out of Liverpool in 1860 was 48