n Francisco, Cal.342,782298,99743,785
New Orleans, La.287,104242,03945,065
Washington, D. C.278,718230,39248,326
Newark, N. J.246,070181,83064,240
Jersey City, N. J.206,433163,00343,430
Providence, R. I.175,597132,14643,451
Kansas City, Mo.163,752132,71631,036
St. Paul, Minn.163,065133,15629,909
Rochester, N. Y.162,608133,89628,712
Syracuse, N. Y.108,37488,14320,231
New Haven, Conn.108,02781,29826,729
Paterson, N. J.105,17178,34726,824
Fall River, Mass.104,86374,39830,465
St. Joseph, Mo.102,97952,32450,655
Maine—Bangor, Bath, Belfast, Castine, Eastport, Ellsworth, Houlton, Kennebunk, Machias, Portland, Saco, Waldoborough, Wiscasset, York.
Massachusetts—Barnstable, Boston, Edgarton, Fall River, Gloucester, Marblehead, Nantucket, New Bedford, Newburyport, Plymouth.
Michigan—Detroit, Grand Haven, Grand Rapids.
Marquette, Port Huron.
Minnesota—Duluth, St. Paul.
Mississippi—Natchez, Shieldsborough, Vicksburg.
Missouri—Kansas City, St. Joseph, St. Louis.
New Jersey—Bridgeton, Newark, Perth Amboy, Somers Point, Trenton, Tuckerton.
New York—Albany, Buffalo, Cape Vincent, Dunkirk, New York, Ogdensburg, Oswego, Patchogue, Plattsburg, Port Jefferson, Rochester, Sag Harbor, Suspension Bridge.
North Carolina—Beaufort, Edenton, Newberne, Wilmington.
Ohio–Cincinnati, Columbus, Cleveland, Sandusky, Toledo.
moral force of its opponents if necessary.
Combinations were formed under various names—Social Band, Friends' Society, Blue Lodge, The Sons of the South, etc. A powerful organization under the title of the Emigrant Aid Society had been formed in Boston under the sanction of the legislature of Massachusetts immediately after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill (May, 1854) ; and the Southern societies just mentioned were organized to oppose this Emigrant Aid Society. At a meeting at Westport, Mo., early in July, 1854, it was resolved that Missourians who formed the associations represented there should be ready at all times to assist, when called upon by pro-slavery citizens of Kansas, in removing from the Territory by force every person who should attempt to settle under the auspices of the Emigrant Aid Society.
Both parties planted the seeds of their respective systems in Kansas.
They founded towns: those from the free-labor States founded Lawrence, Topeka, Boston, Grasshoppe