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ucky soil was on the 2d of July, when 2,000 men assembled at Camp Dick Robinson, near the centre of the State. Lieutenant William Nelson, of the Navy, afterward a major-general, was the secret agent through whom the Union men were organized and armed. Seeing the drift of public sentiment and the popularity of neutrality in Kentucky, the more ardent secessionists left the State and entered the Confederate army. Camp Boone was established in Tennessee, near the State line, not far from Clarksville. The Southern party in Kentucky were careless as to the abstract right of secession. Their distinctive struggle was for constitutional liberty, and, regarding the Administration as a revolutionary propaganda and the State authorities as traitors to their trust, they left the soil of the Commonwealth without hesitation, certain that the march of events and the voice of the people would speedily demand their return. Events now began to move very rapidly. The crisis had arrived when
on Bowling Green, and considered Columbus secure. At Columbus there were some 12,000 effectives, in a commanding position, behind strong fortifications, and with sufficient heavy artillery. Indeed, not having been properly informed of the reductions in the garrison from sickness and other causes, he estimated the force there at 16,000 men, and sought to strengthen his line where most vulnerable by a detachment from it. For this purpose, he ordered Polk to send Pillow, with 5,000 men, to Clarksville, where, with the troops at Fort Donelson and Fort Henry, he could defend that section from sudden irruption. The battle of Belmont, however, intervened, delaying Pillow's removal; after which, on the ground of an imperious necessity, all his generals concurring, Polk suspended the order. It was represented to General Johnston that but 6,000 effectives would be left at Columbus, confronted by 25,000 men, who were being largely reinforced from Missouri. In a letter to the Secretary of Wa
e list contains no mention of a number of Kentucky regiments then actually or nearly completed, some of which were then doing service, such as those commanded by Garrard, Pope, Ward, Hobson, Grider, McHenry, Jackson, Burbridge, Bruce, and others. By reference to Van Horne's work, it will be found that a number of these were brigaded December 3d. Nor is any account taken of the numerous organizations of Home Guards. General Sherman estimated the Confederate force from Bowling Green to Clarksville at from 25,000 to 30,000 men-double their real numbers. Appendix B (2). General Johnston estimated the Federal force in his front at 15,000 to 20,000; in the Lower Green River country at 3,000; near Camp Dick Robinson, at 10,000; and elsewhere in Northern Kentucky, at 10,000. These figures were substantially correct. Sherman's command, from his own account, may be tabulated thus: Fourteen regiments at Nolin (his figures)13,000 Twenty-eight regiments mentioned (estimated)26,00
anuary 10, 1862. He then made another reconnaissance toward Green River, where he found a heavy Federal force, and, in returning, burned the bridges over Pond River, a tributary of Green River. When General Clark retired from Hopkinsville to Clarksville, February 7th, Forrest covered his retreat. Thence he went to Fort Donelson, in time to take part in the defence there. The following letters to the Secretary of War explain the situation in Kentucky in December. It will be remembered th Major-General R. Davis, are stationed here-my whole force amounting, as before remarked, to 17,000 men. A brigade, under General Clark, is posted at Hopkinsville, to guard against the movements of the enemy on the Lower Green River toward Clarksville, and to follow their movements should they attempt to cooperate with the movements of the enemy in my front; his force should be much greater for these purposes. The measures adopted at Columbus render that place comparatively secure from
or Harris at Nashville and Senator G. A. Henry at Clarksville, explaining his business and invoking their aid adefense and obstruction of the river at Donelson, Clarksville, and Nashville, and to intrust the construction t As to the defenses of the Cumberland River below Clarksville, they should be at least as low down as Fort Donerate States Senator from Tennessee, a resident of Clarksville, and deeply interested in the defense of the Cumbor Gilmer wrote on the 16th of November: At Clarksville I also employed a competent person to establish ared laborers were needed at Nashville, as many at Clarksville, 1,000 were called for at Fort Donelson by Lieuteemed to be directed from South Carrollton against Clarksville as the objective point. But as the rainfall and became more imminent at the forts and less so at Clarksville; and military movements and preparations were, ofeans of doing at least as much at Fort Henry. At Clarksville some 300 negroes were employed, but the works the
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Holding Kentucky for the Union. (search)
lative elections in August.. During this period of neutrality Kentucky history seemed to be repeating itself. As before its occupation by white men it was the common hunting-ground for the Indian of the North and of the South on which by tacit agreement neither was to make a permanent home, so now it had become the common recruiting-ground of Northern and Southern armies on which neither was to establish a camp. The Kentucky secessionists had opened a recruiting rendezvous near Clarksville, Tennessee, a few miles from the Kentucky border, which they called Camp Boone, and recruits began to gather there early in July. Buckner resigned from the State Guard a few days after the battle--of Bull Run and soon took his way southward. During the neutrality period it would appear that the Union authorities were in doubt as to which side General Buckner would espouse, since on August 17th, 1861, President Lincoln wrote to the Secretary of War: Unless there be reason to the contrary, no
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., chapter 12.47 (search)
t less than 30,000 men in Missouri, was menacing General Polk's positions, including New Madrid, while General Halleck, exercising command over the whole of this force of 125,000 men of all arms, had his headquarters at St. Louis. On the other hand, General Johnston (as he stated, to my surprise) had an aggregate effective of not over 45,000 men of all arms, thus distributed: at Bowling Green, his headquarters, not over 14,000; at Forts Henry and Donelson, 5500; in the quarter of Clarksville, Tennessee, 8000; besides 17,000 under General Polk, chiefly at Columbus, and for the most part imperfectly organized, badly armed and equipped. As may be seen from any map of the region, the chief part of this force occupied a defensive line facing northwardly, the two salient extremities of which were Bowling Green, some 70 miles by railway in advance of Nashville, and Columbus, about 110 miles west of Bowling Green. This line was penetrated, almost centrally, by the Cumberland and Tenness
Varina Davis, Jefferson Davis: Ex-President of the Confederate States of America, A Memoir by his Wife, Volume 2, Chapter 58: the President's account of the evacuation of Richmond. (search)
roled at Appomattox, arrived, from whom it was learned that when he left Lee's army, it was about to be surrendered. Other unofficial information soon followed, of such circumstantial character as to confirm these reports. How Mr. Davis bore defeat is best described by the following letter, written by Mr. Davis's faithful friend, M. H. Clarke, whose opportunities of knowing the President were better than those of another less intimately associated with him in a time of great trial. Clarksville, Tenn., October 6, 1890. My Dear Mrs. Davis: The history of his country is indissolubly woven with your honored husband, and therefore I offer my individual impressions of him in scenes which are yet unwritten. The sum of such impressions helps to give an idea of one phase of his manysided individuality, both simple and grand, which rounded out the perfect man. I came out of Richmond with him, the chief and confidential clerk of the Executive Office, in charge of the office papers, a
Varina Davis, Jefferson Davis: Ex-President of the Confederate States of America, A Memoir by his Wife, Volume 2, Chapter 80: General Joseph E. Johnston and the Confederate treasure. (search)
memento of the last days of the Confederacy. I have no knowledge of what became of the rest of the amount, whatever it may have been, that the Government sent away or brought away from Richmond. The statement of Captain M. H. Clark, of Clarksville, Tenn., who was acting treasurer at the time of the surrender, is very full and explicit. It was given in the Courier-Journal, Louisville, Friday, January 13, 1882, and is as follows: Clarksville, Tenn., January 10th. As the papers of late haClarksville, Tenn., January 10th. As the papers of late have been full of communications from ex-Confederates in regard to the Confederate Treasury matters, called out by a reported interview with General J. E. Johnston with a reporter of the Philadelphia Press, and as I have it in my power to rive a true history of the last days of the Confederate Treasury from the written documents of that period still in my possession, I have decided to prevent any further controversy, and show what were the specie assets of the Confederate States at the time of th
ores. She got aground and an officer unloaded a portion of her stores when he was attacked by thirty rebels. The crew, being unarmed, were compelled to surrender. The guerrillas, after removing the furniture and silver ware, set fire to both the boats. The crews were released on parole. The rebel Colonel John H. Morgan, issued a proclamation from Hartsville, Tenn., in which he said that in consequence of the Federal Government causing his friends to pay for property destroyed by him, he would thenceforth put the law of retaliation in full force, and act upon it with vigor. For every dollar exacted from his Southern fellow-citizens, he would have two from men of known Union sentiments, and would make their persons and property responsible for the payment. Clarksville, Tenn., garrisoned by a small number of Union troops, under command of Col. Mason, was this day surrendered to Col. Woodward and a superior force of rebel guerrilla troops, without firing a shot.--(Doc. 186.)
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