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Jubal Anderson Early, Ruth Hairston Early, Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early , C. S. A., Chapter 25: retreat to Virginia. (search)
n the Cashtown road at two o'clock on the morning of the 5th, arriving at the Fairfield road after sunrise. The withdrawal of the other corps was then progressing, and White's battalion of cavalry was ordered to accompany me. I waited on the Fairfield road until it had been cleared by the rest of the army, including the other tllowed by White's battalion, bringing up my rear. On arriving in sight of Fairfield, which is situated near the eastern base of South Mountain on a wide low plaintry, and I opened with shell on it. The enemy's battery replied to mine, and Fairfield was soon cleared of wagons, as the teamsters and wagon masters found it more n ordered to be withdrawn, and I moved the division in line gradually through Fairfield to a favorable position for making a defence, and here waited the enemy's adv as a corps of observation. It gave Rodes no trouble and did not come beyond Fairfield. A body of the enemy's cavalry had previously come upon that part of our
Lt.-Colonel Arthur J. Fremantle, Three Months in the Southern States, July, 1863. (search)
enced moving back towards Cashtown, and Ewell's immense train of plunder had been proceeding towards Hagerstown by the Fairfield road ever since an early hour this morning. Johnson's division had evacuated during the night the position it had ge. At 2 P. M. we walked to General Longstreet's camp, which had been removed to a place three miles distant, on the Fairfield road. General Longstreet talked to me for a long time about the battle. He said the mistake they had made was in not , and cattle captured in Pennsylvania, the solid advantages of this campaign, have been passing slowly along this road (Fairfield) all day: those taken by Ewell are particularly admired. So interminable was this train that it soon became evident th very slow indeed, and we took eight hours to go as many miles. At 8 A. M. we halted a little beyond the village of Fairfield, near the entrance to a mountain-pass. No sooner had we done so, and lit a fire, than an alarm was spread that Yankee
General James Longstreet, From Manassas to Appomattox, Chapter 26: Gettysburg-First day. (search)
borders of the Potomac and Susquehanna, and the cities of Baltimore and Washington; so that it was something of a strategic point. From the west side two broad roads run, one northwest to Chambersburg via Cashtown, the other southwest through Fairfield to Hagerstown. They cross an elevated ridge, a mile out north, and south of the Lutheran Seminary, known to the Confederates as Seminary Ridge, covered by open forests. At the northward, about two miles from the town, the ridge divides, a lesWashington and Baltimore under close lines that could not be turned. At Gettysburg the Confederates had comparatively an open field. Reports coming in to Headquarters about six o'clock that the enemy was in some force off our right towards Fairfield, General Lee ordered General Anderson to put one of his brigades out on the right as picket-guard. Wilcox's brigade and Ross's battery were marched and posted near Black Horse Tavern. Nothing coming from the centre troops about Cemetery Hi
General James Longstreet, From Manassas to Appomattox, Chapter 29: the wave rolls back. (search)
tion by the Chambersburg and Fairfield routes, the army to march after night by the latter,--the Second Corps as rear-guard, the First to follow the Third and push on to secure the crossings of the Potomac at Williamsport and Falling Waters. It was daylight of the 5th when the road was open for the march of the First, and a later hour of the morning before the Second could follow. Pursuit was made by the enemy, led by cavalry and the Sixth Corps, and the rear-guard had to deploy near Fairfield to check it. Rain was helping us. Before the enemy could get through the mud and push his batteries over the boggy fields, our trains had reached the mountain gorge, and the rear-guard was on the march following. Direct pursuit of the solid ranks was changed to march down the east of the mountains, but the firmer broad road gave the Confederates easier march. Kilpatrick got his cavalry in on the wagon-trains and destroyed a number, but did not delay the march of the column. On this r
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 4. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Causes of the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg. (search)
at General Lee could never have established his army in Pennsylvania with his communications open so as to get supplies, even of ammunition; but yet I think he could easily have so manoeuvred as to force Meade to attack him. A position covering Fairfield would have given him the Valley to support himself himself on, and would have been so threatening to Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Harrisburg that public clamor would have forced Meade to try and dislodge him. We had ammunition enough miles west of Gettysburg, Buford's cavalry between his command and the town. At Emmettsburg, ten miles southeast of Gettysburg, bivouacked the First and Eleventh corps of Hooker's army; and an infantry division of the Federal army camped at Fairfield, twelve miles southwest of Gettysburg. At 5 A. M., July 1st, Hill advanced towards Gettysburg, and at 8 A. M. the two Federal corps moved forward from Emmettsburg towards the same point-these hostile forces being ignorant of the designs and p
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 4. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Report of General Kershaw. (search)
4 A. M. on the morning of the 2d, but did not leave camp until about sunrise. We reached the hill overlooking Gettysburg with only a slight detention from trains in the way, and moved to the right of the Third corps, and were halted until about noon. We were then directed to move under cover of the hills towards the right with a view to flanking the enemy in that direction if cover could be found to conceal the movement. Arriving at the hill beyond the hotel at the Stone Bridge on the Fairfield road, the column was halted while Generals Longstreet and McLaws reconnoitered the route. After some little delay the Major-General commanding returned and directed a counter-march, and the command was marched to the left beyond the point at which we had before halted, and thence, under cover of the woods, to the right of our line of battle. Arriving at the School House, on the road leading across the Emmettsburg road by the Peach Orchard, then in possession of the enemy, the Lieutenant-
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 4. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Leading Confederates on the battle of Gettysburg. (search)
the 2nd of July, (see Schenck's telegram, 1st vol. Congressional Report on the Conduct of the War, 2nd series, p. 489,) and arrived near Gettysburg on the 3rd of July, too late to take any part in the battle, and were posted on our right, near Fairfield, as Stuart says, (2nd vol. Society Papers, 65). They were, therefore, of no avail to us in the invasion of Pennsylvania or in the battle of Gettysburg, but merely aided in guarding our trains to the rear and observing the enemy when we retit Turner at once returned to General Johnson and delivered these instructions, directing him to be ready to attack, Early being already in line on the left and Rodes on the right of the main street of the town, Rodes' right extending out on the Fairfield road. This is a very full and frank statement of the orders received and of the reasons that influenced General Ewell, and surely his character and services were such as to demand for his own account, intended for the eye of the Commanding
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 5. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Leading Confederates on the battle of Gettysburg. (search)
whole of the enemy's force beating a hasty retreat to Cemetery till. My right now extended into the woods referred to, and my left was a short distance from the Fairfield road. On passing beyond the stone fence and into the peach orchard near McMillan's house, I was ordered by General Pender not to advance further unless there wa, moved back to the rear of Thomas and Perrin on the 4th. There was skirmishing at intervals that day, and at dark we commenced falling back in the direction of Fairfield, Captain W. T. Nicholson, of the Thirty-seventh, being left in command of the skirmishers from my brigade. We formed line of battle at Hagerstown, id., on the to Colonel Corley and Major Mitchell about dark. Let there be as little confusion as possible. Have the wagons which are to accompany the troops parked on the Fairfield road, so that they can file in with the column as it passes. Will you please send Colonel Alexander to see the General at this point at light. Very respect
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 5. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), A review of the First two days operations at Gettysburg and a reply to General Longstreet by General Fitz. Lee. (search)
but others had fired scarcely a shot, and the presence of General Lee, who had now arrived, would have given a new impulse to the battle. It is probable strong efforts would have been made to hold the position until the troops of the Third and Second corps could be brought up. Although General Sickles reached the field at an earlier hour, only two brigades of his command arrived that night-these reaching the field at sunset. Two brigades were left at Emmettsburg to hold the pass towards Fairfield, and General Humphreys, with two brigades of his division, reached the field at 1 o'clock the next morning. The Second corps was ordered to move up to Gettysburg, but General Hancock met it on the road on his return to Taneytown, where he went to report to General Meade, and not considering its presence necessary, ordered it to go into bivouac. In case of an engagement, however, these troops could hardly have reached the field before nightfall. By this brief explanation you will see t
res, and shops of every description, will be closed at nine o'clock P. M. All club-rooms and gambling-houses are hereby closed until further orders. No citizens or other persons, except the police and officers in the United States service, or soldiers on duty or with passes, are to be allowed in the streets after nine o'clock P. M. --the United States transport boat Zephyr was fired into, at a point six miles below Donaldsonville, La, and two men were wounded.--A fight occurred at Fairfield, Pa., between the Sixth United States cavalry, under Major Samuel H. Starr, and two brigades of rebel cavalry, under Generals Robinson and Jones.--Philadelphia Enquirer. The battle of Gettysburgh was concluded this day. Repulsed at every point, General Lee withdrew in the night, leaving General Meade master of the field.--(Docs. 20 and 118.) Suffolk, Va., was evacuated by the Union troops.--A circular letter was issued from the Treasury Department by Secretary Chase, regulating the
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