An incubator (which see).
A small carriage adapted for children's uses, being drawn or pushed by an attendant.
Chil′i — an mill.
From time immemorial the ores of Mexico, Central America, and Peru have been worked, and the processes yet used in some of the more remote districts are rude and wasteful or exceeding slow.
The Chilian mill and arrastra are specimens of the latter.
A in the accompanying cut shows the adaptation of water-power as a motor for the primitive mill of Central America, the arrangements being of a massive and rude description.
B shows a more modern form of the same device.
The modern form of the Chilian mill in its application to the grinding of oleaginous seeds, nuts, kernels and fruits, is shown in Fig. 1271.
Each stone has a rotation on its horizontal axis A′, and also a rotation around the common, vertical axis A. The latter is driven by the pinion S and be
（Hydraulic Engineering.) a. One running on a vertical axis, as do the turbines generally.
The term is, however, specifically applied to a wheel having radial floats upon which a stream of water is dashed, usually from a considerable elevation.
The floats may be set spirally, so as the better to receive the impact of the water.
This form of wheel has but little prominence in this country, but is used in Central America and some other places where a small body of water with a considerable head is available, and the mechanical appliances at hand will not furnish a better arrangement.
b. A turbine, as it is usually arranged.
1. A hard projection from the heads of certain animals, cattle, sheep, and goats.
Mechanically and chemically speaking, the horns of these animals must not be confounded with the antlers of the various species of deer, which are more nearly allied to bone and ivory.
h trophies from Cacutta; the Portuguese have turned the Venetian position, and the trade is their own. The western essays have yet been fruitless, for no India has been reached, and the fourth voyage of Columbus, in 1502, in which he reaches Central America, is yet barren to him, for no strait is found.
Columbus died in 1506, supposing that he had discovered India, though surprised at not being able to make connection with the eastern voyagers and the land of Marco Polo's adventures.
In 1500 rence to the pointer and graduated perimeter.
A peculiar kind of silk, generally containing 3 threads, and made from the white Novi raw silk.
It is dyed without discharging the gum.
A musical instrument of Central America, consisting of a series of calabashes of different sizes set in a frame and having the tops cut off. Pieces of parchment or membrane are stretched over the openings, and are tuned so as to produce, when beaten with an implement resembling a
hn Herschel, Lyell, and the most eminent authorities in meteorology generally concur in the opinion that the tendency of cutting down the woods is to cause an absolute diminution of the rainfall.
The plains of Babylonia, once so fertile, now an arid desert; the elevated plateaus of Central Spain, which in the time of the Romans yielded abundant harvests, and now afford but a scanty subsistence to sheep, — appear to owe their present sterility to this cause; while it is stated that, in Central America, lakes situated in tracts formerly cleared by the Spaniards, which had diminished in volume, have again become full on account of the increased rainfall due to encroachment of vegetable forms on this cleared land.
It is also stated that the amount of arable land in Egypt has been increased in recent times by planting palms and other trees in desert and unfertile places.
The origin of some of the oases in he great Sahara desert is attributed to the same cause.
However the absolute
-dyesFicus religiosa, etcE. IndiesThe Coccus lacca, by puncturing trees of the produces shell and other lacs, that afford beautiful red dyes.
LarchLarix albaEurope, etcFor tanning, inferior to oak.
Lichen dyesLecanora rocella, etcCool climatesMany genera and species give dyes; as cudbear, litmus, orchil, etc.
LitmusRocella tinctoriaCanaries, S. Europe, etcA lichen used to give a purple dye to silks.
Used in chemistry as a test for alkalies and acids.
LogwoodHaematoxylon campechianumCentral AmericaUsed in dying rod and black colors, shades of purple, etc. Called also campeachy wood.
Lombardy poplarPopulus dilatataFor tanning.
In parts a fragrant smell to the leather, similar to that of Russia leather.
MadderRubia tinctoria, etcFranceEmployed to produce the celebrated Turkey red and other dyes.
Affords garancine by the action of sulphuric acid.
Madder (Indian）(See Munjeet)
Mangrove barkRhizophora mangleTropicsThe bark is very astringent.
Used for tanning.