a was protected by a stone mole called the Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos and the main-land.
It had two passages through it, which were spanned by bridges.
Nebuchadnezzar built quays and breakwaters along the shores of the Persian Gulf. — Herodotus.
The harbor of Rhodes and the Piraeus of Athens were protected by moles, as were also those of Civita Vecehia, Ostia, Antium Misenus, and others among the Romans.
We are informed by Josephus, that Herod, desiring to form a aving its own grade of polishing-powder, be it emery, rotten-stone, tripoli, crocus, rouge, putty-powder, etc.
（Vessel.) An East India coastingvessel with one mast and a lateen sail.
The buggarah is an Arab vessel of the Persian Gulf.
The bugis, a prahu or boat trading between Singapore and the islands of the Indian Archipelago.
The bujrah is a flat-bottomed Ganges boat with cabins.
（Vehicle.) A light four-wheeled vehicle, having a single seat.
were also provided with sluices, which governed the influx and efflux.
Diodorus Siculus also describes the canal.
His measurements differ from the modern ones.
Herodotus states that the Lake Moeris was excavated 1385 B. C., and was 450 miles in circumference.
It was probably a natural basin artificially adapted as a reservoir to be filled during high Nile.
Nebuchadnezzar constructed a canal 400 or 500 miles long, running from Hit, the Is of Herodotus, to the Bay of Graine, on the Persian Gulf.
It is referred to by Strabo (xvi.
1052). It has been traced by Colonel Rawlinson from Hit almost to the Bay of Graine.
Herodotus and Pliny mention the canals of Asia Minor.
The first constructed in Europe was probably that dug by Xerxes across the low Isthmus of Athos.
The Greeks attempted to cut one across the Isthmus of Corinth.
Among the early European canals may be mentioned the canal through the Pontine Marshes, made 162 B. C.; and the Fossa Phillistina and Carbonania, dug
At the upper end are scales adapted to the width of the back and the hight of the shoulder.
1. (Nautical.) A sort of purchase.
Fixed to the main-stay as a hoisting-in tackle, but useful in other positions indicated by names, such as clew-garnet, etc.
2. A hinge of Tshape, the crossbar being attached to the hanging stile or post.
（Building.) A bolt having a chamfered or faceted head.
A vessel of the Persian Gulf, having a length of from 50 to 100 feet, a short keel, and a long overhanging prow and stern.
An upper apartment of a house, immediately under the roof.
Small splinters of stone inserted in the joints of coarse masonry.
（Surgical.) A tourniquet formed of a band and a stick, the former being twisted by the revolution of the latter.
A Spanish instrument of execution.
The victim is fastened by an iron collar to a
, as in the earlier maps.
In the map of Democritus, the Mesopotamian rivers flow into the ocean and mark the extent of geographic knowledge, in an eastern direction, of the Mediterranean nations.
In the next map these rivers debonch into the Persian Gulf; and India with its marginal rivers, the Indus and the Ganges, forms an eastern extension.
Taprobane (Ceylon) is also shown.
Britannia and Ierne come upon the scene with the Cassiterides or Tin Islands, which had been known to the Phoenician Salamanca, in 1486, to Columbus, who proposed to reach the east by sailing to the west.
The geographer of the Church represented the earth as a plane twice as long as it was broad, embracing the Mediterranean and indented by the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian; around it was the ocean.
It most resembled the map of Homer's time, 1,400 years before, and was a ridiculous burlesque in a city where Ptolemy had lived but four centuries previously.
But Cyril and the monks intervening had
m on the monuments of Thebes, busy with one pen at work, and the other placed in that most ancient pen-rack, behind the ear. Such is represented in a painting at Beni Hassan.
It is said that the best reeds for the purpose formerly grew near Memphis, on the Nile; near Cnidus of Caria, in Asia Minor; in Armenia and in Italy: those of the latter being of relatively poor quality.
A place yet famous for them, and which may have supplied the ancient demand in part, is in the vicinity of the Persian Gulf, in a large fen or tract of soggy land supplied with water by the river Helle, a place of Arabia formed by united arms of the Euphrates and Tigris.
They are cut in March, tied in bundles, laid six months in a manure-heap, where they assume a beautiful color, mottled yellow and black.
（Chardin.) Tournefort saw them growing in the neighborhood of Teflis in Georgia.
Miller describes the cane as growing no higher than a man, the stem three or four lines in thickness, and solid from one kno
1866Lyall's Bay to White's Bay4150
1866Crimea to Circassia40
1866Colonia to Buenos Ayres304
1866England to Hanover22427
1866Cape Ray, Newfoundland, to Aspee Bay, Cape Breton91200
1866Leghorn, Italy, to Corsica65100
1866*Khios to Crete2001,200
1867South Foreland, England, to La Panne, France4728
1867Malta to Alexandria, Egypt9252,000
1867Havana to Key West, Florida12520
1867Key West to Punta Russia, Fla12020
1867Placentia, Newfoundland, to St. sarkara and kanda, whence our sugar and candy. The old German word glessum, amber, has become the modern glass; the latter resembles the former very closely.
Through the intercourse which the Phoenicians, by means of their factories on the Persian Gulf, maintained with the east coast of India, the Sanscrit word kastira, expressing a most useful product of Further India, and still existing among the old Aramaic idioms in the Arabian word kasdir, became known to the Greeks even before Albion a