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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 98 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10 78 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 4, 15th edition. 60 0 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 46 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 40 0 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 36 0 Browse Search
William Hepworth Dixon, White Conquest: Volume 2 36 0 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 32 0 Browse Search
Philip Henry Sheridan, Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General, United States Army . 28 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 20 0 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for Preussen or search for Preussen in all documents.

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stings are made at Berlin, Germany, known as the Berlin iron ornaments and chains. One exhibited in London was 4 feet 10 inches long, had 180 links, and weighed 1 2/3 ounces. Professor Ehrenberg, the renowned microscopist, states that the iron of which they are composed is made from a bog iron-ore, and that the sand is a kind of tripoli, also containing iron. Both are composed of the remains of animalcules. The origin of these interesting works of art was during the struggle between Prussia and France under Napoleon I. The generous ladies gave up their jewels to purchase the necessary armaments, and received in return iron ornaments which bore the inscription, Ich gab Gold um Eisen, — I gave gold for iron. An anvil block weighing 280,000 pounds, to be used with a 44,800-pound double-action forge-hammer was cast at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. To obtain the best result in compact metal-castings, destitute of porosity and with sharp definition on the angles and ornaments, castin
drops the carrier-block to receive the following cartridge from the magazine, and places the arm in readiness to be fired. The United States has adopted the Springfield. England adopts Snider's improvement on the Enfield. France, the Chassepot. Belgium, the Albini. Holland, the Snider. Turkey, the Remington and Winchester. Austria, the Wanzl. Sweden, the Hagstrom. Russia, the Laidley and Berdan. Switzerland, the Winchester. Portugal, the Westley-Richards. Prussia, the needle-gun. The well-known form shown at C, Plate 14, has been superseded by the Mauser gun. See needle-gun. The breech-loaders purchased by the American government between January 1, 1861, and January 30, 1866, were of number and kind as follows: — Ballard1,500Maynard20,002 Ball1,002Palmer1,001 Burnside,55,567Remington20,000 Cosmopolitan9,342Sharps80,512 Gallagher22,728Smith30,062 Gibbs1,052Spencer94,156 Hall3,520Starr25,603 Joslyn11,261Warner4,001 Lindner892Wesson151
the place of manufacture or the destined use of the article. By the atomic theory there should be in 100 parts, 74.64 niter, 13.51 charcoal, 11.85 sulphur. In practice there are employed, — Niter.Charcoal.Sulphur. In the United States, military purposes761410 Or751510 In the United States, sporting 781210 771310 In England, military purposes751510 In England, sporting 78148 75178 In France, military purposes7512.512.5 In France, sporting781210 In France, blasting621820 In Prussia, military purposes7513.511.5 Although the use of gunpowder in Europe can be traced back only to the middle or earlier part of the fourteenth century, yet it seems fully proved from various passages in ancient authors that it is one of those inventions whose origin is lost in the obscurity of a very remote antiquity. The fact appears indisputable that it originated in Central or Eastern Asia, where it was used for many ages previous to its introduction into Europe, where it appears to h
2439.83456.760 23.91840.83057.757 24.91341.82558.753 25.90742.82059.749 26.90143.81660.745 In Gay Lussac's centigrade hydrometer the specific gravity of a liquid heavier than water is found by subtracting the indication from 100 and dividing 100 by the remainder; if lighter than water, add the indication to 100 and divide 100 by the sum, thus 10° below 0° = 100/90=1.111 specific gravity; 10° above 0° = 100/110=0.909 specific gravity. The hydrometer of Brix is that legally used in Prussia; to ascertain the specific gravity the constant number, 400, is divided by 400 + the indication for liquids lighter than water, and by 400-the indication for those heavier than water. The formula for Beck's instrument is precisely similar, substituting 170 for 400. Tralle's and Gendar's are used in the United States, the former being adopted by government for ascertaining the duty on distilled spirits. It is graduated from 0°, the indication in water, to 100°, alcohol, 50° being p
ied over a larger surface. When the whole of the design has passed under the scraper, the lever c at the side is restored to its upright position, the carriage falls upon the rollers b b b, it is brought back by hand, the tympan lifted, and the printed sheet removed. Lithographic hand-press. This, with unimportant modifications, is the form given to the lithographic hand-press in England and America. In Germany, Belgium, and France, presses of this construction are rarely seen. In Prussia, for instance, a press is used, occupying nearly double the space, but admirably constructed and well adapted for the execution of first-class work. In this machine, the scraper and its holder swing from the side across the carriage, the holder or head is then locked, and the pressure applied by a compound lever with the foot. The carriage is then drawn through by a broad girth or belt, one end of which is made fast to it and the other wound about an axle of small diameter at the extreme
sausage-machine. Mine. 1. A subterraneous passage from which coal, metals, metallic ores, are obtained. Depth of Mines.Feet. Eselchact, Bohemia (silver).3,778 Dunkenfield, England (coal)2,504 Pendleton, England (coal)2,504 Linden, Prussia (salt well)2,331 Tresavean, England (copper)2,112 Durham, England (coal)1,773 Valenciana, Mexico (silver)1,686 Crown Point, Comstock lode, Nevada (silver)1,400 Santa Rosa, Mexico (silver)1,200 2. Crude ironstone, known as raw-mine, greester shall be able to play them upon the organ, harpsichord, etc. (Phil. Tran., 1747.) Creed invented a machine for this purpose in England in 1747; Hennersdorf of Berlin, one in the following year. John Freke in England, Unger and Hohlfield in Prussia, worked at the idea. Unger formed a part of the harpsichord. The device of Hohlfield was attachable to any instrument. Descriptions were transmitted to the Academy of Berlin in 1752, and published in Brunswick in 1774. Mus′ket. (Fire-
1°)8,101 GreeceStadium1,083.33 GuineaJacktan4 HamburgMeile8,238 HanoverMeile8,114 HungaryMeile9,139 IndiaWarsa24.89 ItalyMile2,025 JapanInk2.038 LeghornMiglio1,809 LeipsieMeile (post)7,432 LithuaniaMeile9,781 MaltaCanna2.29 MecklenburgMeile8,238 MexicoLegua4,638 MilanMigliio1,093.63 MochaMile2,146 NaplesMiglio2,025 NetherlandsMijle1,093.63 Place.Measure.U. S. Yards. NorwayMile12,182 PersiaParasang6,076 PolandMile (long)8,100 PortugalMitha2,250 PortugalVara3.609 PrussiaMile (post)8,238 RomeKilometre1,093.63 RomeMile2,025 RussiaVerst1,166.7 RussiaSashine2.33 SardiniaMiglio2,435 SaxonyMeile (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph. (Gearing.) An instrument for marking or laying off the teeth of gear-wheels; invented by Professo
e soft, and finally dissolve; while rosin will dissolve at once. It is not difficult by means of these reactions to test the different resins for their purity. gum-resins. Common Name.Botanical Name.Native Place.Quality, Use, etc. AmberPrussia, Poland, etc.Found in the mines, rivers, and sea-coasts of Prussia. Used in varnish and for mouth-pieces of pipes. AmmoniacumDorema ammoniacumPersia, etcUsed as a stimulant in medicine. Anime or AnimiHymenaea courbarilBrazilUsed for varnish. Prussia. Used in varnish and for mouth-pieces of pipes. AmmoniacumDorema ammoniacumPersia, etcUsed as a stimulant in medicine. Anime or AnimiHymenaea courbarilBrazilUsed for varnish. The Indian kind known in commerce as Indian copal. Vateria indicaIndia AsphalteTrinidad, Dead Sea, etcForms a basis of black varnishes, as Japan black, etc. Used with sand for paying material. Affords petroleum or rock oil. AssafoetidaNarthex assafoetida, etc.Central AsiaUsed as a stimulant and antispasmodic in medicine. Australian gum-resinsEucalyptus (various)AustraliaAffords resins for varnishes, and produces tannin. Tasmania BalataAchras dissectaGuianaOne of the Sapoteae; allied i
silver. In 1850, Mr. Alexander Parkes patented in England a process for extracting silver from lead by means of zinc. This is now employed in various works in Prussia and France; and it is claimed that ores containing but 8 ounces of silver to the ton can be profitably worked by it. The process is conducted in large cast-iro embrace the links of the chain, instead of being pointed and entering into the links. Such are seen on some forms of water-elevators. Spruce. (Leather.) Prussia leather; pruce. Sprue. (Founding.) a. The ingate of a mold, through which the metal is poured. b. The piece of metal attached to a casting, occupying tulting is due to the skill of the workmen, the extent of the furnace, and the power and manageability of the machinery. The establishment of F Krupp, at Essen, Prussia manufactured, in 1873, 150,000,000 lbs of cast-steel, against 130,000 000 in 1870; 8,810 workmen, and engines amounting to 9,595 horsepower, are employed. 528 fu
chine for covering iron wire with india-rubber, and in 1848, by the aid of this machine, covered a wire with gutta-percha, which was laid between New York and Jersey City. Telegraphs of wire coated in this way were extensively introduced into Prussia in 1847-48, and in the latter year a guttapercha covered wire was laid across the Rhine at Cologne by Dr. Siemens. The first submarine cable ever laid in the open sea was laid between Dover, England, and Cape Grinez, France, in 1850. It was vered with velvety coats, colored according to the animal, are made at Rodach, toys in porcelain at Ohrdruff; whilst the baby dolls, simply attired, come from Sonnenberg, Neustadt, and Wallerhausen. Men made in plaster are dispatched to us from Prussia, whilst leaden soldiers, measuring about an inch in hight, painted and heavily armed, come from Bavaria, Nuremberg, and Furth. Household utensils in china — such as pipkins, saucepans, cups and saucers, dolls' heads in china, games of lotto, pe
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