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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 98 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10 78 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 4, 15th edition. 60 0 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 46 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 40 0 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 36 0 Browse Search
William Hepworth Dixon, White Conquest: Volume 2 36 0 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 32 0 Browse Search
Philip Henry Sheridan, Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General, United States Army . 28 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 20 0 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10. You can also browse the collection for Preussen or search for Preussen in all documents.

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Preface. the papers which I obtained from the French archives when Mr. Mignet had them in charge, have been of the greatest benefit in preparing this volume. Important aid has been derived from the exceedingly copious and as yet unedited cabinet correspondence of Frederic the Second of Prussia with his foreign ministers in England, France, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Russia. In choosing from this vast mass of materials, I received the most friendly assistance from the superintendent, Mr. Dunker, and from Mr. Friedlander. Extracts from these letters, which are all written in the French language, will be published in Paris. I sought for some expression, on the part of Frederic, of a personal interest in Washington; but I found none. The Chevalier von Arneth, so honorably known as historian, editor, and critic of integrity and acuteness, had the exceeding goodness to direct for me an examination of the archives at Vienna; very many reports from the Austrian ambassadors in Lo
ration only to add new weight to debts which were already escaping beyond control. The king of Prussia, whose poverty made him a sharp observer of the revenues of wealthier powers, repeatedly foretompire, and hold it for a third of a century, his first words in explanation of his policy were: Prussia must be utterly thrown down from its very foundations, if the house of Austria is to stand upriw closer his relations with that power, Kaunitz thus counselled the young emperor: Move against Prussia with all moderation and regard for good appearances. Never fully trust its court. Direct agais the policy of the arch-house and its famous minister at this period of American history. But Prussia proved the depth and vigor of its roots by the manner of its wrestling with the storm; the Haps., ihre Correspondenz, III. 268. In Gustavus the Third of Sweden, the nephew of Frederic of Prussia, France might expect a friend. The revolution of 1771, in favor of the royal prerogative, had
dged himself anew to the reformation by uniting to his possessions secularized Prussia. Between all whom one and the same renovating principle rules, inspires, annia. At the close of the thirty years war, Brandenburg had for its elector, Prussia for its duke, a prince by birth and education of the reformed church, trained e for the son of the Great Elector to crown himself on his own soil as king of Prussia. As the elector of Saxony had meantime renounced the reformation, to ride fororth, to the rank of an independent and hopeful monarchy. For America and for Prussia, it was the dawn of the new day. In the former, Protestantism took the lead insphere that Newcastle was forced to bend to William Pitt; and then England and Prussia, and the embryon United States,—Pitt, Frederic, and Washington,—worked togetheeen shaped if Pitt's ministry had continued, and the bonds between England and Prussia had been riveted by a common peace? But here, as everywhere, it is useless to
rman for their mother tongue, was Frederic of Prussia, then the only king in Germany. He united indirect commerce between the United States and Prussia: but he consented to an exchange of commoditiunced that England should receive no aid from Prussia; and Vergennes on his side gave the hint thatuest which interfered with his nearer duty to Prussia. I have already related the visit of Arthu The rash man, who was then British envoy to Prussia, attempted to throw upon the officiousness off Austrian policy to overthrow the kingdom of Prussia, looked upon the acquisition of Bavaria as thpon the French council an alliance of France, Prussia, and Russia. Italy and Bavaria, he said, woult; and he saw no hope for himself, as king of Prussia, to rescue Bavaria and with it Germany from aprehension alike on the side of Russia and of Prussia. So when the news of the surrender of Burg commissioners to purchase and ship arms from Prussia. Before the end of 1777 he promised not to b[1 more...]
their left; while the rest of the army planted their standards on the field of battle, and lay on their arms to renew the contest at daybreak. But Clinton, abandoning his severely Chap. IV.} 1778. wounded and leaving his dead unburied, withdrew his forces before midnight; and at the early dawn they found shelter in the highlands of Middleburg. Washington then marched towards the North river; the British for New York by way of Sandy Hook. On receiving the English accounts, Frederic of Prussia replied: Clinton gained no advantage except to reach New York with the wreck of his army; America is probably lost for England. Of the Americans who were in the engagement two hundred and twenty-nine were killed or wounded; of the British more than four hundred, and above eight hundred deserted their standard during their march through the Jerseys. In the battle which took its name from the adjacent village of Monmouth, the American generals, except Lee, did well: Wayne especially est
m France all other advantages that she could derive from the war. She excused her importunities for delay by the necessity of providing for the defence of her colonies; the danger that would hang over her homeward-bound troops and commerce; the contingency of renewed schemes of conquest on the part of the Russians against the Ottoman empire; the succession of Bavaria; the propriety of coming to a previous understanding with the Netherlands, which was harried by England, and with the king of Prussia, who was known to favor the Americans. Count Florida Blanca to Count de Aranda, 13 Jan., 1778. Communicated with other documents from the Spanish archives by Don Pascual de Gayangos. Count Montmorin, the successor of d'ossun as French ambassador at Madrid, had in his childhood been a playmate of the king of France, whose friendship he retained, so that his position was one of independence and dignity. As a man of honor, he desired to deal fairly with the United States, and he obser
Chapter 11: Progress of the war in Europe. 1779. Frederic of Prussia had raised the hope that he Chap. XI.} 1779. would follow France in recognising the independence of the United Stateess the British cabinet persisted in seeking aid from Russia and the friendship of the king of Prussia. Suffolk to Elliot, 7 April, 1778. But from Petersburg Harris wrote: Chap. XI.} 1778. They ime of the elder Pitt as a very grave mistake. Report of Count Belgiojoso, and 8 Jan., 1781. Prussia should have been left to perish. Through his minister in France, Frederic sent word to Maured Maurepas retained the old traditions of the French monarchy. Moreover, he was willing to see Prussia and Austria enfeeble each other, and exhibit to the world France in the proud position of Cha1 Sept., 1779. maison d'autriche, notre alliee La de nom, et notre rivale de fait. Austria and Prussia resumed their places among European powers, each to have an influence on American affairs: the
ere the use of them would involve a conflict with Great Britain. During the summer the flag of Denmark, of Sweden, of Prussia, had been disregarded by British privateers, and they severally demanded of England explanations. Vergennes seized the her dignity and equity, if she will make common Chap. XII.} 1778. cause with Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and the king of Prussia. She would render to Europe a great service if she would bring the king of England to juster principles on the freedom and Copenhagen. Frederic to Goltz, 17 and 24 April, 1779. Through the explanations of the Chap. XII.} 1779 king of Prussia, every displeasure was removed from the mind of Vergennes, and his answer to the Russian note drew from Count Panin the neutral rights; and the Russian 1779. envoy at London, no less than the envoys of Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Prussia, delivered a memorial to the British government. To detach Russia from the number of the complainants, Harris, in Janua
the desired commander-in-chief, the one man on whom rested the hopes of the ministry for the successful termination of the war. His friends disparaged the ability of Sir Henry Clinton, accused him of hating his younger and more enterprising compeer, and censured him for leaving at the south forces disproportioned to the service for which they were required. We are come to the series of events which closed the American contest and restored peace to the world. In Europe the sovereigns of Prussia, of Austria, of Russia, were offering their mediation; the united Netherlands were struggling to preserve their neutrality; France was straining every nerve to cope with her rival in the four quarters of the globe; Spain was exhausting her resources for the conquest Chap. XVI.} 1780. of Gibraltar; but the incidents which overthrew the ministry of North, and reconciled Great Britain to America, had their springs in South Carolina. Cornwallis, elated with success and hope, prepared for t
United States of Oct. 5. America in congress, by a resolution which Robert R. Livingston had drafted, proclaimed the principles of the empress of Russia, and afterwards included them in their treaties with the Netherlands, with Sweden, and with Prussia. By the other belligerent of that day, the armed neutrality was considered fatal to its sovereignty over the ocean. The king was ready to having the question to an issue. His ministry were of the opinion, that to tolerate the armed neutralihad compromised the rule on contraband, the minister was for the time dismissed from office. Bismarck to Frederic, 5 and 12 Sept., 3 and 10 Oct., 11 and 14 Nov., 1780. It may here be added that on the seventh of May, 1781, May 7. Frederic of Prussia, acceded to the armed neutrality, and obtained its protection for the commerce of his people. Five months later, Joseph the Second overcame his ill-humored demurs, and, by yielding by treaty to the empress, gained advantages for the commerce of
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