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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Algonquian, or Algonkian, Indians, (search)
ticokes, Lenni-Lenapes or Delawares, Mohegans, the New England Indians, the Abenakes, and Miemaes. There were smaller independent tribes, the principal of which were the Susquehannas in Pennsylvania; the Mannahoacs in the hill-country between the York and Potomac rivers; and the Monacans, on the headwaters of the James River, Virginia. All of these tribes were divided into cantons or clans, sometimes so small as to afford a war-party of only forty men. The domain of the Algonkians covered a vahatans constituted a confederacy of more than twenty tribes, including the Accohannocks and Accomacs, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. The confederacy occupied the region in Virginia consisting of the navigable portion of the James and York rivers, with their tributaries. The Corees were south of the Powhatans, on the Atlantic coast, in northern North Carolina. The Cheraws and other small tribes occupied the land of the once powerful Hateras family, below the Corees. The Nanticokes w
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Argall, Sir Samuel, 1572-1626 (search)
Argall, Sir Samuel, 1572-1626 English adventurer; born in Bristol, England, in 1572. He was in Virginia at a time when Powhatan was particularly hostile to the English settlers. He and his nearest neighbors would not allow the people to carry food to the English at Jamestown, and provisions became very scarce. Argall was sent with a vessel on a foraging expedition up the York River. Being near the dwelling of Powhatan, he bribed a savage by a gift of a copper kettle to entice Pocahontas on board his vessel, where he detained her a prisoner, hoping to get a large quantity of corn from her father as a ransom, and to recover some arms and implements of labor which the Indians had stolen. Powhatan rejected Argall's proposal for a ransom with scorn, and would not hold intercourse with the pirate; but he sent word to the authorities at Jamestown that, if his daughter should be released, he would forget the injury and be the friend of the English. They would not trust him, and the
remote 75,000. Very soon there were 120,000 men at Fort Monroe, exclusive of the forces of General Wool, the commander there. A large portion of these moved up the Peninsula in two columns, one, under Gen. S. P. Heintzelman, marching near the York River; the other, under General Keyes, near the James River. A comparatively small Confederate force, under Gen. J. B. Magruder, formed a fortified line across the Peninsula in the pathway of the Nationals. The left of this line was at Yorktown, ans, commanded by Gen. W. F. Smith, and the 10th Corps, under Gen. Q. A. Gillmore, who arrived at Fort Monroe May 3. Butler successfully deceived the Confederates as to his real intentions by making a demonstration towards Richmond by way of the York River and the Peninsula, along McClellan's line of march. On the night of May 4, Butler's army was embarked on transports and conveyed around to Hampton Roads; and at dawn the next morning 35,000 troops, accompanied by a squadron of war vessels unde
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bacon, Nathaniel, 1642- (search)
their own defence. They were soon embodied in military force, and chose Bacon as their general. He asked the governor to give him a commission as such. but was refused; and Bacon marched against the Indians without it. Before he had reached York River, the governor proclaimed him a rebel, and ordered his followers to disperse. A greater portion of them followed Bacon's standard. and the expedition pushed forward: while the lower settlements arose in insurrection, and demanded an immediate y a Virginia rebel, Thomas Jefferson (q. v.), proclaimed the English-American colonies free and independent States. Bacon, so encouraged, immediately marched against the Indians. The faithless governor, relieved of his presence, crossed the York River, called a convention of the inhabitants of Gloucester county. and proposed to proclaim Bacon a traitor. The convention refused to do so, when the haughty baronet issued such a proclamation on his own responsibility. in spite of their remonst
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Big Bethel, battle at. (search)
battle at Big Bethel an accomplished young graduate of West Point, whom he appointed master of ordnance, to superintend the construction of fortifications there which commanded the ship-channel of the James River and the mouth of the Nansemond. The forced inaction of the National troops at Fort Monroe, and the threatening aspect of affairs at Newport News, made the armed Confederates under Col. J. B. Magruder bold, active, and vigilant. Their principal rendezvous was at Yorktown, on the York River, which they were fortifying. They pushed down the peninsula to impress slaves into their service, and to force Union men into their ranks. At Big and Little Bethel (two churches on the road between Yorktown and Hampton) they made fortified outposts. It was evident that Magruder was preparing to seize Newport News and Hampton, and confine Butler to Fort Monroe. The latter determined on a countervailing movement by an attack on these outposts. Gen. E. W. Pearce, of Massachusetts, was pl
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Civil War in the United States. (search)
onfederate Congress at Richmond broken up and dispersed.—24. Destruction of the Dismal Swamp Canal completed.—May 1. Skirmish at Pulaski, Tenn., and 200 Union troops captured.—3. Skirmish near Monterey, Tenn., and Union victory. Skirmish near Farmington, Miss., and Union victory.—4. British steamer Circassian captured near Havana, Cuba. Skirmish at Lebanon, Tenn.; the Confederates defeated, with the loss of 105 men, their guns, and horses. The Confederates burn their gunboats on the York River. Battle of West Point, Va., and Union victory.—8. Union cavalry surprised and captured near Corinth, Miss. —9. Attack on Sewell's Point by the Monitor. Confederates evacuate Pensacola. Skirmish at Slater's Mills, Va. Bombardment of Fort Darling, on James River.— 10. Craney Island abandoned by the Confederates. General Butler seized $800,000 in gold in the office of the Netherlands Consulate, New Orleans, when all the foreign consuls uttered a protest.—11. Pensacola occupied
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cornwallis, Lord Charles 1738-1805 (search)
in May, 1780; was commander of the British troops in the Carolinas that year; defeated Gates near Camden in August; fought Greene at Guildford Court-house early in 1781; invaded Virginia, and finally took post at and fortified Yorktown, on the York River, and there surrendered his army to the American and French forces in October, 1781. He was appointed governor-general and commander-in-chief in India in 1786; and was victorious in war there in 1791-92, compelling Tippoo Saib to cede, as the prmish occurred, in which the marquis had a horse shot under him and each party lost about 100 men. Cornwallis then hastened across the James (July 9) and marched to Portsmouth. Disliking that situation, the earl proceeded to Yorktown, on the York River, and on a high and healthful plain he established a fortified camp. At Gloucester Point, on the opposite side of the river, he cast up strong military works, and while Lafayette took up a strong position on Malvern Hill and awaited further dev
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of, 1732-1809 (search)
to maintain the rights of the colonists by every means in their power. The bold movement in the Virginia convention (March, 1775) excited the official wrath of Governor Dunmore, who stormed in proclamations; and to frighten the Virginians (or, probably, with a more mischievous intent), he caused a rumor to be circulated that he intended to excite an insurrection among the slaves. Finally, late in April, he caused marines to come secretly at night from the Fowey, a sloop-of-war in the York River, and carry to her the powder in the old magazine at Williamsburg. The movement was discovered. The minute-men assembled at dawn, and were with difficulty restrained from seizing the governor. The assembled people sent a respectful remonstrance to Dunmore, complaining of the act as specially cruel at that time, when a servile insurrection was apprehended. The governor replied evasively, and the people demanded the return of the powder. When Patrick Henry heard of the act, he gathered a
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Grasse-Tilly, Francois Joseph Paul, Count de 1723-1788 (search)
obago in June. He then proceeded with the fleet of merchantmen to Santo Domingo, and soon afterwards sailed with an immense return convoy, bound for France. After seeing it well on its way, he steered for Chesapeake, and, despite the activity of British fleets watching for him, he was safe within the capes of Virginia, and at anchor, with twenty-four ships-of-the-line, at the beginning of September. He found an officer of Lafayette's staff at Cape Henry, sent to request him to blockade the York and James rivers, so as to cut off Cornwallis's retreat. This was done by four ships-of-the-line and several frigates; and 3,000 French troops were sent to join Lafayette. Admiral Rodney supposed part of the French fleet had left the West Indies for America, but did not suppose the whole fleet would take that direction. He thought it only necessary to reinforce Admiral Graves, so he sent Admiral Hood with fourteen ships-of-the-line for the purpose. He reached the Chesapeake (Aug. 25,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hampton, (search)
Hampton, A village near the end of the peninsula between the York and James rivers, Virginia. An armed sloop was driven ashore there by a gale in October, 1775. The villagers took out her guns and munitions of war, and then burned her, making her men prisoners. Dunmore at once blockaded the port. The people called to their aid some Virginia regulars and militia. Dunmore sent some tenders close into Hampton Roads to destroy the village. The military marched out to oppose them; and when they came within gunshot distance George Nicholas, who commanded the Virginians, fired his musket at one of the tenders. This was the The burning of Hampton. first gun fired at the British in Virginia. It was followed by a volley. Boats sunk in the channel retarded the British ships, and, after a sharp skirmish the next day, Oct. 27, the blockaders were driven away. One of the tenders was taken, with its armament and seamen, and several of the British were slain. The Virginians did not
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