The continent of Europe—France.
France, the beautiful kingdom of central Eu-
chap. II.} 1763. rope, was occupie of royal power was the decay of the faith on which it had rested.
France was no more the France of the Middle Age. The caste of the nobilitye of centuries, so that he classed the changes in the government of France among accidents and anecdotes.
Least of all did he understand the in the principles of political liberty, and showed to the people of France how monarchy may be tempered by a division of its power, and how rereating the liberty of industry and trade.
The great employment of France was the tillage of land, than which no method of gain is more gratecoin.
Marquis de Mirabeau, the elder.
The new ideas fell, in France, on the fruitful genius of Turgot, who came forward in the virgin pments burned them at the gibbet by the hangman's hand?
What though France drove him from her soil, and the republic of his birth disowned her
s the sovereign, was the legislature, was the people, was the state.
The separate influence of each of the great component parts of English society may be observed in the British dominions outside of Great Britain.
From the wrecks of the empire of the Great Mogul, a monopolizing company of English merchants had gained dominion in the East; with factories, subject provinces, and territorial revenues on the coast of Malabar, in the Carnatic, and on the Ganges.
They despised the rivalry of France, whose East India Company was hopelessly ruined, and whose feeble factories were in a state of confessed inferiority;—and with eager zeal they pushed forward their victories, openly avowing gain as the sole end of their alliances and their trade, of their warfare and their civil rule.
In America, the middling class, chiefly rural people, with a few from the towns of England, had founded colonies in the forms of liberty; and them-
chap. IV.} 1763 selves owned and cultivated the soil.