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Polybius, Histories 310 0 Browse Search
P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid (ed. Theodore C. Williams) 138 0 Browse Search
Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation 134 0 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Orations, The fourteen orations against Marcus Antonius (Philippics) (ed. C. D. Yonge) 102 0 Browse Search
John Conington, Commentary on Vergil's Aeneid, Volume 2 92 0 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 90 0 Browse Search
C. Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Civil War (ed. William Duncan) 86 0 Browse Search
Cornelius Tacitus, The History (ed. Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brodribb) 70 0 Browse Search
P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid (ed. John Dryden) 68 0 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 66 0 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan). You can also browse the collection for Italy (Italy) or search for Italy (Italy) in all documents.

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Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK II, CHAPTER VI: POZZOLANA (search)
fore thought best to explain how this seems to be, before the question should be raised. 5. The same kinds of soil are not found in all places and countries alike, nor is stone found everywhere. Some soils are earthy; others gravelly, and again pebbly; in other places the material is sandy; in a word, the properties of the soil are as different and unlike as are the various countries. In particular, it may be observed that sandpits are hardly ever lacking in any place within the districts of Italy and Tuscany which are bounded by the Apennines; whereas across the Apennines toward the Adriatic none are found, and in Achaea and Asia Minor or, in short, across the sea, the very term is unknown. Hence it is not in all the places where boiling springs of hot water abound, that there is the same combination of favourable circumstances which has been described above. For things are produced in accordance with the will of nature; not to suit man's pleasure, but as it were by a chance distribu
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK II, CHAPTER VIII: METHODS OF BUILDING WALLS (search)
walls, however, no deduction is made provided that they are still standing plumb, but they are always valued at what they cost to build. Hence in some states we may see public buildings and private houses, as well as those of kings, built of brick: in Athens, for example, the part of the wall which faces Mt. Hymettus and Pentelicus; at Patras, the cellae of the temple of Jupiter and Hercules, which are brick, although on the outside the entablature and columns of the temple are of stone; in Italy, at Arezzo, an ancient wall excellently built; at Tralles, the house built for the kings of the dynasty of Attalus, which is now always granted to the man who holds the state priesthood. In Sparta, paintings have been taken out of certain walls by cutting through the bricks, then have been placed in wooden frames, and so brought to the Comitium to adorn the aedileship of Varro and Murena. 10. Then there is the house of Croesus which the people of Sardis have set apart as a place of repose f
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK V, CHAPTER I: THE FORUM AND BASILICA (search)
CHAPTER I: THE FORUM AND BASILICA 1. THE Greeks lay out their forums in the form of a square surrounded by very spacious double colonnades, adorn them with columns set rather closely together, and with entablatures of stone or marble, and construct walks above in the upper story. But in the cities of Italy the same method cannot be followed, for the reason that it is a custom handed down from our ancestors that gladiatorial shows should be given in the forum. 2. Therefore let the intercolumniations round the show place be pretty wide; round about in the colonnades put the bankers' offices; and have balconies on the upper floor properly arranged so as to be convenient, and to bring in some public revenue. The size of a forum should be proportionate to the number of inhabitants, so that it may not be too small a space to be useful, nor look like a desert waste for lack of population. To determine its breadth, divide its length into three parts and assign two of them to the breadth.
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK V, CHAPTER V: SOUNDING VESSELS IN THE THEATRE (search)
ing to the lyre, who, when they wish to sing in a higher key, turn towards the folding doors on the stage, and thus by their aid are reinforced with a sound in harmony with the voice. But when theatres are built of solid materials like masonry, stone, or marble, which cannot be resonant, then the principles of the “echea” must be applied. 8. If, however, it is asked in what theatre these vessels have been employed, we cannot point to any in Rome itself, but only to those in the districts of Italy and in a good many Greek states. We have also the evidence of Lucius Mummius, who, after destroying the theatre in Corinth, brought its bronze vessels to Rome, and made a dedicatory offering at the temple of Luna with the money obtained from the sale of them. Besides, many skilful architects, in constructing theatres in small towns, have, for lack of means, taken large jars made of clay, but similarly resonant, and have produced very advantageous results by arranging them on the principles d
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK V, CHAPTER XI: THE PALAESTRA (search)
CHAPTER XI: THE PALAESTRA 1. NEXT, although the building of palaestrae is not usual in Italy, I think it best to set forth the traditional way, and to show ob long peristyle in a palaestra should be so formed that the circuit of it makes a walk of two stadia, a distance which the Greeks call the di/aulos. Let three of its colonnades be single, but let the fourth, which is on the south side, be double, so that when there is bad weather accompanied by wind, the drops of rain may not be able to reach the interior. 2. In the three colonnades construct roomy recesses (A) with seats in them, where philosophers, rhetoricians, and others who delight in learning may sit and converse. In the double colonnade let the rooms be arranged thus: the young men's hall (B) in the middle; this is a very spacious recess (exedra) with seats in it, and it should be one third longer than it is broad. At the right, the bag room (C); then next, the dust room (D); beyond the dust room, at the corner of the c
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK VI, CHAPTER I: ON CLIMATE AS DETERMINING THE STYLE OF THE HOUSE (search)
re lacking in due moderation, the truly perfect territory, situated under the middle of the heaven, and having on each side the entire extent of the world and its countries, is that which is occupied by the Roman people. 11. In fact, the races of Italy are the most perfectly constituted in both respects—in bodily form and in mental activity to correspond to their valour. Exactly as the planet Jupiter is itself temperate, its course lying midway between Mars, which is very hot, and Saturn, which is very cold, so Italy, lying between the north and the south, is a combination of what is found on each side, and her preeminence is well regulated and indisputable. And so by her wisdom she breaks the courageous onsets of the barbarians, and by her strength of hand thwarts the devices of the southerners. Hence, it was the divine intelligence that set the city of the Roman people in a peerless and temperate country, in order that it might acquire the right to command the whole world. 12. Now
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK VI, CHAPTER III: PROPORTIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL ROOMS (search)
he architraves to the surrounding walls, with a floor in the upper story to allow of walking round under the open sky. Then, above the architrave and perpendicularly over the lower tier of columns, columns one fourth smaller should be imposed. Above their architraves and ornaments are decorated ceilings, and the upper columns have windows set in between them. Thus the Egyptian are not like Corinthian dining rooms, but obviously resemble basilicas. 10. There are also, though not customary in Italy, the oeci which the Greeks call Cyzicene. These are built with a northern exposure and generally command a view of gardens, and have folding doors in the middle. They are also so long and so wide that two sets of dining couches, facing each other, with room to pass round them, can be placed therein. On the right and left they have windows which open like folding doors, so that views of the garden may be had from the dining couches through the opened windows. The height of such rooms is one a
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK VII, CHAPTER VII: NATURAL COLOURS (search)
CHAPTER VII: NATURAL COLOURSAs for colours, some are natural products found in fixed places, and dug up there, while others are artificial compounds of different substances treated and mixed in proper proportions so as to be equally serviceable. 1. We shall first set forth the natural colours that are dug up as such, like yellow ochre, which is termed w)/xra in Greek. This is found in many places, including Italy, but Attic, which was the best, is not now to be had because in the times when there were slaves in the Athenian silver mines, they would dig galleries underground in order to find the silver. Whenever a vein of ochre was found there, they would follow it up like silver, and so the ancients had a fine supply of it to use in the polished finishings of their stucco work. 2. Red earths are found in abundance in many places, but the best in only a few, for instance at Sinope in Pontus, in Egypt, in the Balearic islands of Spain, as well as in Lemnos, an island the enjoyment of
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan), BOOK VIII, CHAPTER II: RAINWATER (search)
out on the regions in the north. 6. That this is the state of the case may be proved by the sources of rivers, the majority and the longest of which, as drawn and described in geographies of the world, are found to rise in the north. First in India, the Ganges and Indus spring from the Caucasus; in Syria, the Tigris and Euphrates; in Pontus in Asia, the Dnieper, Bug, and Don; in >Colchis, the Phasis; in Gaul, the Rhone; in Celtica, the Rhine; on this side of the Alps, the Timavo and Po; in Italy, the Tiber; in Maurusia, which we call Mauretania, the Dyris, rising in the Atlas range and running westerly to Lake Heptagonus, where it changes its name and is called Agger; then from Lake Heptabolus it runs at the base of barren mountains, flowing southerly and emptying into the marsh called Here there is something lost, as also in chapter III, sections 5 and 6 . . . It surrounds Meroë, which is a kingdom in southern Ethiopia, and from the marsh grounds there, winding round by the rivers